Snapshot

On Cancer: Pigment-Producing Skin Cells Generated Using Stem Cell Technology

By Eva Kiesler, PhD, Science Writer/Editor  |  Tuesday, May 14, 2013
Pictured: Melanocytes

This image shows melanocytes – cells that protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation – created in a Memorial Sloan Kettering laboratory using stem cell technology. A light-absorbing pigment called melanin is produced in numerous compartments of each melanocyte. In the image, which was captured using electron microscopy, these compartments appear as dark spots.

Melanin production gives the skin its characteristic pigmentation and increases during sun exposure to protect cells from the DNA-damaging effects of UV light.

A team of researchers led by developmental biologist Lorenz P. Studer, who directs the Center for Stem Cell Biology, generated the melanocytes from human embryonic stem cells. Published in the journal Cell Reports in April, their approach involves growing the stem cells in a carefully controlled manner while subjecting them to the specific chemical signals that drive the formation of melanocytes in a developing embryo.

New Research Tools

The researchers were able to generate melanocytes at different stages of development — including cells that are mature and fully functional as well as their immature precursors. The achievement gives them new tools to study how melanocytes develop and function normally, and how failures in these processes might lead to some diseases, including melanoma.

In addition, the investigators used induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology to produce melanocytes similar to those seen in patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome or Chediak-Higashi syndrome, two rare skin disorders. The cells provide a unique system to study the underlying causes of these diseases and identify new drugs.

“I feel very lucky to have been given the opportunity to work on such a thrilling project,” says Yvonne Gruber Mica, a student of the Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and the first author of the study. She looks forward to taking part in future investigations in which stem-cell-derived melanocytes will be used to study melanoma and other melanocyte-associated diseases.

Comments

Congratulations! great work. I Think it could be also useful for the treatment of the skin pigment diseases/disorders, such as vitiligo.

Sir, let me know about medicines for treatment of psoriasis and Leucoderma. kindly furnish me the names of medicine and its contents.

Baswaraj, Memorial Sloan-Kettering is a cancer center and treating these skin conditions is not one of our areas of clinical specialization. Thank you for your comment.

I used hydrogen peroxide and without knowing, spilled some on me. It consequently bleached the pigment, not only out of that area, but spread throughout my body. I have some pigmented areas and some non-pigmented areas. Please contact me ASAP if stem cell technology can restore my pigment. Currently I am trying the Catalase treatment, but it cannot restore the lost pigment to it original form.

Mary, the technology described in this article is being used as a research tool in the lab and is not approved for use in patients. Thank you for your comment.

My daughter is albino she is black but looks white she is very pretty, her only problem is her eyes they lack pigment so she has bad vision and is unable to pass her drivers exam, her eye doctor says if only she had pigmentation in her eyes she would have great vision. Any help or in sight you could offer would be greatly appreciated. Thank you so much for your help

Joe, the technology described in this article is being used as a research tool in the laboratory so we're afraid it is too early to tell whether it could be used to help patients. Thank you for your comment.

Hello, I am interested in when you will start testing on people. I would like to volunteer because I am at great risk of getting skin cancer because I am very fair and my dads side of the family has all had it. Let me know, Thanks!

Jason, the technology described in this article is being used as a research tool in the laboratory so we're afraid it is too early to tell whether it could be used to help patients. You can learn more about skin cancer and how we diagnose and treat it at Memorial Sloan Kettering at this link:

http://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/adult/skin

Thank you for your comment.

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