After the completion of leukemia treatment, patients should see their physicians for frequent follow-up exams for several years. Doctors will watch for side effects of treatment that can develop months to years after therapy has concluded (late-term effects), and for signs of the recurrence of AML. During these check-ups patients may undergo tests including a physical exam, blood tests, bone marrow aspirates, biopsies, and x-rays.
A relapse of AML usually occurs during treatment or within two years after treatment ends. If there are no signs of the disease five years after treatment, it is unusual for AML to return. Patients who experience any new symptoms should contact their physicians right away. The sooner these symptoms are evaluated and treated, the better the outcome is likely to be.