Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who achieve a complete remission (no evidence of cancer cells) may receive high doses of a drug called cytarabine as part of “consolidation therapy” to reduce their risk of the cancer returning. During this treatment, however, patients’ blood cell counts fall very low. Some patients may need to be hospitalized. Low blood cell counts may also make it necessary for doctors to delay chemotherapy or reduce the patient’s dose, decreasing the effectiveness of therapy.
Eltrombopag is a drug approved for treating a disease that causes low platelet counts (the blood cells needed for clotting). In this study, researchers are evaluating the highest dose of eltrombopag that can be given with cytarabine in patients receiving consolidation therapy for AML that is in complete remission. Once the optimal dose is identified, investigators will assess the effectiveness of adding eltrombopag to cytarabine therapy to see if it can boost platelet counts and shorten the period of time during consolidation therapy when platelet counts are low. Eltrombopag is taken orally (by mouth).