Many patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer initially respond to platinum-based chemotherapy, but then experience a recurrence six months or more following treatment. Gynecologic oncologist Dennis Chi describes a phase II randomized clinical trial at Memorial Sloan-Kettering that is evaluating the effectiveness of secondary surgery, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), and postoperative chemotherapy for reducing disease progression after a primary recurrence of platinum-sensitive ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. Participants undergo a second debulking surgery to remove cancerous tissue in the abdomen. Those who are optimally debulked then receive either six cycles of postoperative chemotherapy, or HIPEC followed by five cycles of postoperative chemotherapy. HIPEC involves the administration of heated platinum chemotherapy drugs (41 to 43 degrees Celsius in temperature) directly into the abdomen at the completion of surgery in a process that takes an additional one to two hours. The heat is thought to sensitize the cancer cells to the anticancer agents. Prior studies of HIPEC have primarily been single arm in design. If the results of this study show HIPEC is superior to postoperative chemotherapy alone, investigators may begin evaluating the use of other drugs during HIPEC.