Bladder cancer remains one of the most common cancers in the United States and is a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. The treatment of choice for superficial (non muscle-invasive) bladder cancer is cystoscopic resection followed by intra-vesical instillations of BCG. Although it is the most successful treatment for this indication, intravesical instillation of BCG is associated with a significant risk of cancer recurrence. We believe that some of the same mutations that cause bladder urothelial cells to become malignant also cause them to be susceptible to BCG. My work is focused on identifying these factors, which would allow us to predict an individual patient's response to BCG, and to devise strategies to make treatment with BCG more effective.