David Pfister, Chief of Memorial Sloan-Kettering’s Head and Neck Oncology Service, explains that the human papillomavirus (HPV) is spread through sexual contact. However, patients with head and neck cancer do not need to take special precautions with their sexual partners because very few HPV infections result in cancer. Women should have an annual Pap test to prevent cervical cancer, but there is no established screening test for HPV-related head and neck cancer. The HPV vaccine, which is proven to protect against genital warts and cervical cancer, is not proven to prevent head and neck cancer. The vaccine is currently recommended for boys and girls between the ages of 11 and 14, prior to sexual exposure.