Memorial Sloan Kettering’s One-Year Survival Rate after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant Exceeds Expectations

By Memorial Sloan Kettering

on Monday, March 26, 2012

Pictured: Sergio Giralt Sergio Giralt, Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service Chief

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service Chief Sergio Giralt explains recent advances that are enabling more patients to survive the most difficult period after receiving a transplant.

An independent study conducted by the US National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) found that Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center significantly exceeded its predicted rate of one-year survival for patients undergoing an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The NMDP found that 75 percent of patients undergoing this procedure at Memorial Sloan Kettering survived through the first year. The predicted rate of survival was 62 percent.

In allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, a person’s blood-forming stem cells are eliminated and then replaced with new, healthy ones obtained from a donor or from donated umbilical cord blood. The procedure is used as a treatment for certain forms of cancer (including leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndrome), as well as other blood disorders.

In an interview, Sergio Giralt, Chief of Memorial Sloan Kettering’s Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, discusses the significance of the findings, and some of the advances that have made transplantation an effective treatment for a growing number of patients.

Why is one-year survival such an important factor for evaluating the effectiveness of allogeneic transplantation?

The first year is critically important because it’s the period when complications of a stem cell transplant are most likely to happen. Before the stem cells are transplanted, a patient undergoes intensive chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In addition to killing diseased cells, this treatment also eliminates the immune system. This leaves the patient at high risk of infection during the first year after transplantation.

Another complication that can occur following an allogeneic transplant is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD occurs when the transplanted cells from a bone marrow donor recognize the patient’s own cells as foreign and produce an inflammatory reaction. This can produce a range of serious side effects.

One year after the transplant, patients are typically able to get back to their daily lives with a decreased chance of transplant-associated medical complications.

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What do the National Marrow Donor Program findings tell us?

Statistics from the US National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) compare Memorial Sloan Kettering’s actual one-year outcomes with outcomes predicted by the NMDP, based on many aspects of our patient population including age and the types of disease that we treat.

The NMDP predicted that 62 percent of our patients would survive the first year after a transplant. In our actual results, 75 percent of patients — that’s three out of every four — survived that critical period, and now they’re working toward recovery and becoming long-term transplant survivors.

This is great news for our patients. If you were to receive a transplant at a typical center, your chances of being alive at one year would be 60 percent. When you receive a transplant at Memorial Sloan Kettering, your chance of success is much better than average.

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What does Memorial Sloan Kettering do that has led to this improvement in survival after a transplant?

Because patients are at such a high risk of infection, we use very sensitive tests to detect viral infections early. Richard O’Reilly, Chief of Memorial Sloan Kettering’s Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Service, has pioneered research that uses donor-specific immune-fighting cells against viruses. This is a new way of treating viral infection in patients who are severely immune compromised.

We’ve also pioneered an approach called T cell depletion therapy, which is a powerful way of preventing graft-versus-host disease. We know that T cells, a type of white blood cells, in the donor graft can cause GVHD. By removing those T cells from the donor’s cells before a patient receives the transplant, we can significantly reduce the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease.

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In allogeneic transplantation, it’s important to find a donor whose cells are a good match to a patient’s. Are there any options for people who cannot find a match?

The ideal donor for someone who needs an allogeneic stem cell transplant is a sibling. When it is not possible to find a good match within a patient’s family, we look to bone marrow registries to find another donor whose profile matches the patient’s closely.

When you receive a transplant at Memorial Sloan Kettering, your chance of success is much better than average.
Sergio Giralt Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service Chief

Because family size is getting smaller in North America, it is becoming more challenging to find suitable donors within a patient’s family. And, unfortunately, volunteer donors from mixed ethnic or minority backgrounds are not well represented in national registries.

Another approach for patients who need an allogeneic transplant is to use stem cells from donated umbilical cord blood. Cord blood has a much lower risk of causing graft-versus-host disease, and can be transplanted successfully in many patients.

Juliet Barker, one of our transplantation experts at Memorial Sloan Kettering, has been a leader in improving cord blood transplantation. Her results are among the very best in the world, and she’s developed a number of new approaches. This means that in our clinical trials, we can often offer unique stem cell transplantation techniques for patients who do not have a donor in their family or in the volunteer registries.

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How else do staff at Memorial Sloan Kettering support patients through the challenges of that first year?

What many patients notice when they receive a transplant at Memorial Sloan Kettering is our team approach. Everyone here cares for patients undergoing transplantation in the same way, so it doesn’t matter who your attending physician is or who your nurse practitioner is — you will receive the same expert care.

Our doctors and nurses are also committed to managing patients’ symptoms. We want patients to feel as healthy as possible throughout the procedure, both physically and psychologically. Our social workers, psychologists, and psychiatrists are available to make this as easy as possible, both for our patients and their family members.

In everything we do, we are focused on our patients, and we are relentless in our dedication to getting them back to health.

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We will do that. I was wondering if you can answer my question about the oldest patient to ever receive a bone marrow transplant and what the outcome was. Would you also know the percentage of people over 70, 80 etc and what the outcomes were? Who is the Dr. that has the most experience at your hospital in bone marrow treatments for older patients and even with a high risk MDS diagnosis. Thank you again.

Hi Rachel, the best people who could help you with these questions would be in our adult bone marrow and transplant center. See contact info below. This is also actually the better number to call for an appointment as well (sorry about the earlier number).

Call 877-836-ABMT (2268)
Mon–Fri, 8:00 AM–6:00 PM, ET

Could you please give me the survival rates for pediatric bone marrow transplants for early pre leukemic MDS per the risk rating scale? My daughter is 20.

Dear John, you can find outcome information about bone marrow transplantation for Memorial Sloan-Kettering's adult and pediatric patient populations at Be the's web site:…

For more information about our pediatric bone marrow transplantation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering, go to

To make an appointment with a Memorial Sloan Kettering physician in the Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Service, or get more information about our outcomes, please call 212-639-7431.

Thank you for your comment.

My wife was diagnosed as Ph+ALL. I heard that allogeneic stem cell transplantation may be need in this type of Leukemia. She is 61.
Would tell how age affect the survive rate of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Thanks.

Percey, we are not able to answer individual medical questions on our blog. To get general information on survivorship rates, we recommend you reach out to the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service at 800-4CANCER. If you'd like to make an appointment to meet with a Memorial Sloan Kettering doctor, you can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information. Thank you for your comment.

My brother 69 years old failed induction chemo for AML after 39 days in the VA West Roxbury Hospital. He returned home yesterday to receive palliative care. He previously had MDS for over a year being treated with a chemo shot. Could he be an candidate for an ALLO transplant. I am his sister 70 years old in excellent health. What are his chances of survival. He appears to be in good enough health to try to survive.

Barbara, unfortunately we are unable to answer specific medical questions on our blog. If you would like to make an appointment with a Memorial Sloan Kettering physician, please call our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225 or go to Thanks for your comment.

Can you give some reasons as to why a stem cell transplant from a sibling with 10/10 match (and donor does not have any viruses), perfect health, and donation of more than enough stem cells , which were all used at once, would cause leukemia (AML) coming back in first 100 days after engrafment? I would like to know the possible reasons known. Thank you.

Bobbi, we're looking into an answer to your question with one of our experts and will get back with a response when we can. Thank you for your comment, and sorry for the delay.

How common is it if someone with ALL PH+ who goes into early remission with no sign of cells in 3 bone marrow tests and then in the 4 no ALL cells, but now CLL cells are showing up. So the Autogenic stem cell transplant has been put on hold.

Pat, we are unable to answer specific questions like this on our blog. If you'd like to make an appointment to speak with one of our leukemia experts, you can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information. Thank you for your comment.

My husband was diagnosed with T-cells Lymphoma at 43 yrs. He did his 6th cycle of chemo and now will be doing a petscan then an bone marrow biopsy then a auto-bone marrow transplant. If all goes well, what is his survival rate AFTER the year goes by? is it 50% chance his lymphoma will return because he will receive an auto-bone marrow transplant?

G., we are not able to answer personal medical questions on our blog. This is something you should discuss with your husband's healthcare team. If you'd like to make an appointment to speak with an MSK doctor, you can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information. Thank you for your comment.

A friend in her 70s was recently diagnosed with MDS. She comes from a large family and would likely have a bone marrow transplant donor match. Is this recommended over stem cell and would her age be a deterrent? Also she currently has a low white blood cell count. Would this mean chemo is not indicated?

Dear Alicia, we are sorry to hear about your friend's diagnosis. We cannot offer specific medical advice on our blog. To learn more about MDS and related treatments, you may visit our website at

In general, age is only one factor taken into consideration when deciding whether a particular treatment is appropriate for a given individual. We do offer resources and support to help address the special needs of our older patients being treated for cancer. To learn more about our geriatric services, visit:

If your friend would like to make an appointment with one of our specialists, please ask her to call our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225. Thank you for your comment.

Dr. Giralt is a fine doctor. Dr. Giralt was my allogeneic bone marrow transplant Dr. at the UT MD Anderson in Houston Texas in 1991. I am still alive thanks to Dr Giralt's efforts. You could not have a better Dr. for your bone marrow transplant. Thanks Dr. G. Put er between the ditches. Gas it and don't look back.

this is not a personal question. What is your one year survival percentage/rate for people diagnosed with T cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia subsequent to a bone marrow transplant ? Thanks!

John, unfortunately there is no simple answer to this, because a number of factors affect the survival rate, especially the status of the patient's disease at the time of transplant. Here are two recent studies conducted by our doctors that looked at survival rates after BMT in patients with ALL: and

You might also be interested in looking at some statistics from the National Marrow Donor Program: and…

Thank you for your comment.

Many Biotech companies are developing cell-based cancer immunotherapies based on chimeric antigen receptor and high-affinity T cell receptor technologies to genetically engineer T cells to recognize and kill cancer cells. They are developing multiple cell-based product candidates to treat a variety of B-cell malignancies as well as solid tumors. There have been some good results so far. There compelling evidence of tumor shrinkage in clinical trials using multiple cell-based product candidates to address refractory B cell lymphomas and leukemias. My general question, I noticed this therapy is being investigated in B cell lymphomas only. In theory, could it be used to treat T cell lymphomas as well? If yes, why arent there clincial trials focused on the treatment of the T cell Lymphomas? I ask, because I notice there are few trials investigating these type of Cancers..i.e. T cell lymphblastic lymphoma..etc.. Thanks!

John, we forwarded your question to Michel Sadelain, who developed the modified T cell therapies that we are testing at MSK, and he said that the current therapy would not be applicable to T cell lymphoma, but this is an area of ongoing investigation. Thank you for your comment.

I had my half match stem cell transplant 8 months ago. My transplant doctor told me I have to wait a whole year until I'm able to go back work. So I have 4 months left but before I had the transplant I was told I had to wait 6 months to a year to recover. But I feel great and better than I ever have. So would it be okay to tell my transplant doctor that I'm really to get back to work or at else be able to go enjoy myself. Also and take off this annoying masks I have to wear?

Vernon, we are not able to offer personal medical advice on our blog. Please discuss your concerns with your doctor. Thank you for your comment.

I had an allogeneic stem cell transplant for MDS-RCMD and 85 days after transplant, a clone of cells with complex genetics has recurred. I'm told there is no treatment left for me other than infusions of DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5 days per month for the remainder of my life. Should I seek another opinion?

Dear Mike, we are not able to offer specific medical advice on our blog, but if you would like to make an appointment for a consultation about your treatment options with one of our physicians, please contact our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225. Thank you for reaching out to us.

I have a question about something in the MSKCC publication "Returning Home After Your Allogeneic Transplant". In the section entitled "Your Home Environment", it states: "You should not be around any renovations or construction. This includes those in process and those done within the past 3 months."
For how long after an allogeneic transplant is this recommended?

Linda, thank you for your question. The concern about being around construction has to do with what might then be circulating in the air (such as fungus, which is a particular concern when there is digging into the ground). Specific recommendations around how long a patient should avoid being around those types of settings after a transplant may vary depending on clinical status, although our general recommendation is to take precautions for 100 days post-transplant. We would encourage you to ask your physician and follow his or her recommendations for you based on your individual situation.

I really just need to let off steam to someone who understands please. My 20 yr old son was diagnosed with Leukaemia in 2010 and received a sct from his sister with a 100. Per cent match in 2012 . He survived his first year although drs didn't seem to know if he had developed GVH or not. He was in and out of hospital regularly with pneumonia and died on 12/10/13 . His drs have never contacted me to say what went wrong. They told me two days before he died that they would not resuscitate if he stopped breathing and whilst awake he struggled to breathe whilst asleep he breathed deeply and easily. I know no-one can help him now but two years on I blame myself and until I know what happened I can't begin to recover. Can you help please

I have post essential thrombocythemia, meylofibrosis, spleen removed in 2010, portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation of portal vein , alsohave varices but so far not bleeding. Currently on cytarabine subcutaneous and jakafi we are weaning off jakafi Bc of a 60 pound weight gain that is mostly fluid outside the cells. Diuretics have not worked. Heart liver kidneys checked. Went to mayo clinic in Florida received no answer. I also have iron overload from many blood transfusions. Blood type an positive. I am from Long Island but moved to South Carolina wondering if in all honesty your doctors can help me. The jakafi doesn't work without cytarabine to keep platelets down . I am feeling I need a team of doctors that will help rather than tell me your case is complicated and send me home with info already knew and not a plan or positive suggestion on et and meylofibrosis. I am 49 will be 50 soon. In last 18 months my quality of life is being bedridden and barely being able to do activities of daily living. I have hernia due to necrotizing fasciitis in 2012. I do have gastroparesis. What is time frame to get appt and can I receive multiple appointments over 1-2 week period if I went to Long Island and stayed with friends. Please I am desperate I cannot lose the fluids it's in abdomen legs hands feet etc and outside cell and diuretics just dehydrate kidneys and heart. Been on 1200 calorie diet for over a year and fromoct2014--April 2015 was 169 and lost many inches in9 days gained 60 lbs at hospital after received 4 units blood chemo potassium calcium . It is now November and feel I am blowing up more

Nancy-Lynn, we are sorry to hear about your current condition. If you are interested in making an appointment with a Memorial Sloan Kettering physician for a consultation, please call our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225 or go to­care/appointment. Thanks for your comment.

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