More Information: Minus iconIcon indicating subtraction, or that the element can be closed. Plus IconIcon indicating addition, or that the element can be opened. Arrow (down) icon.An arrow icon, usually indicating that the containing element can be opened and closed.

Carbohydrate-based Antitumor Vaccines


S.J. Danishefsky and M.T. Bilodeau. Glycals in Organic Synthesis: The Evolution of New Strategies for the Convergent Assembly of Oligosaccharides and Other Glycoconjugates. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 35, 1380-1419 (1996).

S.J. Danishefsky and J.R. Allen. From the Laboratory to the Clinic: A Retrospective on Fully Synthetic Carbohydrate-Based Anti-Cancer Vaccines. Angewandte Chemie, 39, 836-863 (2000).

O. Ouerfelli, J.D. Warren, R. Wilson, S.J. Danishefsky. Synthetic Carbohydrate Based Antitumor Vaccines: Challenges and Opportunities. Expert Review of Vaccines. 4(5), 677-685 (2005).

Clinical Trials

G. Ragupathi, S. Slovin, S. Adluri, D. Sames, I.-J. Kim, H. M. Kim, M. Spassova, W. G. Bornmann, K. O. Lloyd, H. I. Scher, P. O. Livingston and S. J. Danishefsky. A Fully Synthetic Globo H Carbohydrate Vaccine Induces a Focused Humoral Response in Prostate Cancer Patients: A Proof of Principle. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 38, 563-566 (1999).

S. F. Slovin, G. Ragupathi, S Adluri, G. Ungers, K. Terry, S. Kim, M. Spassova, W. G. Bornmann, M. Fazzari, L. Danits, K. Olkiwicz, K. O. Lloyd, P.O. Livingston, S. J. Danishefsky, and H. I. Scher. Carbohydrate Vaccines in Cancer: Immunogenicity of a Fully Synthetic Globo H Hexasaccharide Conjugate in Man. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 5710-5715 (1999).

Z.-G. Wang, L.J. Williams, X.-F. Zhang, A. Zatorski, V. Kudryashov, G. Ragupathi, M. Spassova, W. Bornmann, S.F. Slovin, H.I. Scher, P.O. Livingston, K.O. Lloyd, S.J. Danishefsky. Polyclonal Antibodies from Patients Immunized with a Globo H-KLH Vaccine: Isolation, Quantification, and Characterization of Immune Response Using Totally Synthetic Immobilized Tumor Antigens. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97, 2719-2724, (2000).

P. Sabbatini, V. Kudryashov, S. Danishefsky, P.O. Livingston, G. Ragupathi, W. Bornmann, M. Spassova, A. Zatorski, D. Spriggs, C. Aghajanian, S. Soignet, M. Peyton, C. O’Flaherty, J. Curtin and K.O. Lloyd. Immunization of Ovarian Cancer Patients with a Synthetic Lewisy-protein Conjugate Vaccine: Clinical and Serological Results. Int. J. Cancer, 87(1), 79-85, (2000).

T. Gilewski, G. Ragupathi, S. Bhuta, L. J. Williams, C. Musselli, X.-F. Zhang, K. P. Bencsath, K. S. Panageas, J. Chin, L. Norton, A. N. Houghton, P. O. Livingston, S. J. Danishefsky. Immunization of Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients with a Fully Synthetic Carbohydrate Based Vaccine: A Phase I Trial. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (6), 3270-3275, (2001).

S. F. Slovin, G. Ragupathi, C. Musselli, K. Olkiewicz, D. Verbel, S. D. Kuduk, J. B. Schwarz, D. Sames, S. Danishefsky, P. O. Livingston, H. I. Scher. Fully Synthetic Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines in Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer: Clinical Trial Results With ?-N-Acetylgalactosamine-O-Serine/Threonine Conjugate Vaccine. J. Clin. Oncology 21 (23) 4292-4298 (2003).

L. M. Krug, G. Ragupathi, C. Hood, M. G. Kris, V. A. Miller, J. R. Allen, S. J. Keding, S. J. Danishefsky, J. Gomez, L. Tyson, B. Pizzo, V. Baez, P. O. Livingston. Vaccination of Patients with Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Synthetic Fucosyl GM-1 Conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin. Clinical Cancer Research 10, 6094-6100 (2004).

S. Slovin, G. Ragupathi, C. Musselli, C. Fernandez, M. Diani, D. Verbel, S. Danishefsky, P. Livingston, H. Scher. Thomsen- Friedenreich (TF) Antigen as a Target for Prostate Cancer Vaccine: Clinical Trial Results with TF Cluster (c)-KLH plus QS21 Conjugate Vaccine in Patients with Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer. Clinical Cancer Immunology. 54, 694-702 (2005).

Multiantigenic Vaccines

S. J. Keding, S. J. Danishefsky. Prospects for total synthesis: A vision for a totally synthetic vaccine targeting epithelial tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (33), 11937-11942 (2004).

G. Ragupathi, F. Koide, P. O. Livingston, Y. S. Cho, A. Endo, Q. Wan, M. K. Spassova, S. J. Keding, J. Allen, S. J. Danishefsky. Preparation and Evaluation of Unimolecular Pentavalent and Hexavalent Antigenic Constructs Targeting Prostate and Breast Cancer: A Totally Synthetic Route to Anticancer Vaccines. J. Am. Chem. Soc. ASAP (2006).