Medical oncologist Virginia Klimek discusses a randomized clinical trial for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and symptomatic anemia. The standard treatments for MDS include red blood cell transfusions and erythropoietin injections, but many patients do not respond well to these therapies. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center is participating in a multicenter Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study that is assessing the effectiveness of combining lenalidomide with erythropoietin injections. It is believed that lenalidomide may render bone marrow more receptive to the benefits of the injections. The study is open to adults with low- to intermediate-risk MDS and symptomatic anemia who have not yet been treated with lenalidomide.