Glucarate, calcium-d-glucarate, calcium saccharate, calcium-d-saccharate
Calcium glucarate is the salt and the commercial form of glucaric acid. Glucaric acid occurs naturally in a variety of foods, including oranges, broccoli, and potatoes (1). Calcium glucarate and other derivatives have been used to prevent and treat cancer. Patients with breast cancer often self-medicate with supplements of calcium glucarate following surgery or adjunctive treatments. The glucarate component, not the calcium, is thought to account for its activity. Following administration, glucarate is converted to d-glucaro-1,4-lactone, which inhibits beta-glucuronidase (4). In vitro and animal studies suggest that inhibition of beta-glucuronidase may prevent carcinogenesis (5), as well as inhibit the initiation and promotion of cancer cells (3) (6). Increased elimination of carcinogens and hormones, including estrogen, has also been shown (2).
Human studies have not been conducted to evaluate the safety or efficacy of calcium glucarate for cancer treatment.
Cruciferous vegetables, apples, grapefruit, lettuce, bean sprouts, grapes
- Cancer prevention
- Cancer treatment
Mechanism of Action
The glucarate component, not the calcium, accounts for the activity of this supplement. Calcium glucarate is absorbed from the gut as D-glucaric acid. D-glucaric acid is further converted to D-glucaro-1,4-lactone, which is thought to inhibit the activity of beta-glucuronidase (4). Beta-glucuronidase has been shown to decrease the rate of elimination of estrogen and carcinogens (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines) by deconjugation (3). Inhibition of beta-glucuronidase activity with calcium glucarate is thought to improve excretion of metabolized estrogen and carcinogens (2). D-glucarate can also be metabolized by gut bacteria, inhibit bacterial beta-glucuronidase, and potentially alter the enterohepatic cycle. D-glucarate may also interact with signal transduction pathways altering promotion and initiation of cancer cells (4).
D-glucarate salts are absorbed in the stomach as D-glucaric acid or metabolized by gut bacteria. D-glucaric acid is converted to D-glucaro-1,4-lactone and D-glucaro-6,3-lactone. D-glucaro-1,4-lactone is extensively distributed throughout the body, present in all tissues and body fluids (4). Excretion is primarily in the urine with minimal amounts present in feces and (1).
No adverse reactions have been reported.
Oral birth control / hormone replacement: Theoretically glucarate may reduce serum levels of estradiol and other hormones metabolized by glucuronidation pathway.
Entacapone: Theoretically glucarate may alter the metabolism and excretion of entacapone.
Literature Summary and Critique
The safety and efficacy of calcium glucarate have not been evaluated in humans.
Dosage (Inside MSKCC Only)
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