Holy basil, turmeric, ginger, green tea, rosemary, hu zhang, Chinese gold thread and Scutellaria inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and thereby reduce inflammation. In vitro studies showed that Zyflamend inhibits inflammatory enzymes, decreases retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation (10), and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (2) (3) (4) (11). It also reduced androgen receptor signaling and enhanced bicalutamide-induced apoptosis (9). In melanoma cells, it induces autophagy and apoptosis sequentially by activating the intrinsic caspase cascade. Cell migration and COX-2 expression were also suppressed (5). In myeloid leukemia cells and lung adenocarcinoma cells, it inhibits osteoclastogenesis and NF-kappa B activation (2). It also inhibits NF-kappa B activation and enhances gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells (4).
Both a cellular model of obesity-related inflammation and an obese animal model indicate that Zyflamend blocks proinflammatory mediators and aromatase induction as well as Akt and NF-kB activation. Increased aromatase mRNA levels and mammary gland activity were also partially inhibited (7).
In a murine xenograft model of prostate cancer, Zyflamend was shown to inhibit androgen-dependent tumor growth and histone deacetylase-5, biomarkers linked to prostate cancer progression (6). It also reduced the number of inflammatory cells, hyperplasia and dysplasia, and tumor incidence and number, and inhibited cell proliferation in an animal model of oral squamous cell carcinoma (3).