Meet the MSK Oncologist on a Quest to Cure Hodgkin Lymphoma with Fewer Long-Term Side Effects

Young man receiving chemotherapy.

Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer that's most common in young adults, making the goal of reducing the long-term side effects of treatment especially critical.

Cancer in young adults is rare. When it does occur, one of the most common types is Hodgkin lymphoma. Cure rates are high, especially when the disease is detected early. But the standard treatment — usually a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy — often results in serious, long-term health problems that can develop 20 or more years after treatment.

Memorial Sloan Kettering’s David Straus, a medical oncologist who specializes in treating blood cancers including lymphoma, is focused on finding treatment regimens that have fewer side effects without compromising success rates.

In December, Dr. Straus presented a study at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) annual meeting that looked at using PET scans to monitor the presence of disease after initial treatment to help with decisions on additional treatment.

We spoke with him recently about that study and his work.

What is the current treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma?

For early-stage disease, we use a chemotherapy regimen called ABVD, which is a combination of four drugs given together. Patients may receive up to six rounds of this treatment and may also get a course of radiation therapy — most commonly to the neck and chest, where many lymph nodes are located. This has been a standard treatment for at least 25 years, and it is effective in treating the disease, as shown by the high cure rates.

Patients who do not respond to or recur after initial therapy may undergo more intensive treatments, including bone marrow or stem cell transplantation using either their own cells or donor cells. This option also offers the possibility of a cure.

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If the cure rates are so high, why is it important to find better treatments for this disease?

In our most recent study, the average age of patients we treated was between 25 and 30, which is typical for people with Hodgkin lymphoma. The patients who are cured should be expected to live a long time. However, studies show that 40 years after treatment, only 25 percent of Hodgkin lymphoma survivors [those whose initial cancer was cured] are still alive. Almost all of the deaths are related to late complications of treatment, particularly radiation therapy.

The leading cause of death in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors is secondary cancers, which are usually related to radiation therapy, with an additional contribution of chemotherapy in some cases. Radiation therapy to the neck and chest area also can lead to cardiovascular damage, such as carotid stenosis, a narrowing of the arteries in the neck that can cause strokes; coronary artery disease; and scarring of the heart valves. Weakening of the heart — leading to heart failure — can be caused by both radiation and chemotherapy, and the risks are higher when both are used to treat the lymphoma.

There are other effects that don’t decrease patients’ life spans but can dramatically affect their quality of life, such as neck drop, which is a loss of nerve and muscle function in the neck that prevents a person from being able to lift his or her head.

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Tell us about the recent study you presented at the ASH meeting.

David Straus

Dr. David Straus

This was a multicenter phase II trial that looked at using PET scans as a biomarker to tailor treatment. PET scans are typically used at the end of treatment, and patients who have PET-negative disease — meaning that no cancer can be found on the scan — have a very low likelihood that their disease will come back. PET scans are also currently recommended as a test to monitor how well patients are doing mid-treatment, but we know less about what those findings mean.

In this study, we wanted to find out if interim PET scans — scans given in the middle of treatment — might provide an opportunity to minimize further treatment for some patients, in order to reduce both short- and long-term toxicity. The trial included 164 patients with early-stage disease. All were given PET scans after their second round of ABVD treatment.

The patients in whom the interim PET scan did not detect disease — about 90% — were given two additional rounds of ABVD, for a total of four rounds, and didn’t receive any radiation treatments. Patients who still had evidence of disease on their interim PET scan were given a more intense chemotherapy combination known as escalated BEACOPP, along with radiation therapy.

After an average follow-up time of two years, only eight out of 131 patients who got the less-intensive ABVD-only treatment had relapsed, which is as good as or better than what we would expect to see in patients who receive more prolonged chemotherapy treatment and radiation therapy.

These are still early results, and we’ll continue to follow these patients. But they indicate that a less-intensive treatment approach may provide the same opportunity for patients to be cured with fewer long-term side effects.

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Are there other options for patients who don’t respond to standard treatments?

We’re looking at several experimental treatments in clinical trials. There are some newer drugs that appear to be fantastic. One of them is called brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®). It’s a chemotherapy drug attached to an antibody that targets the cancer more directly by delivering the chemotherapy molecule right to the tumor. It’s already approved by the FDA for disease that fails to respond to or relapses after chemotherapy, but we think it may be effective in treating disease that has not yet been treated or has received less chemotherapy.

We’re also looking at immune therapies, particularly so-called checkpoint inhibitors, which take the brakes off the body’s own immune system and enable it to attack the cancer. We are currently investigating two of these drugs that are already approved for the treatment of other cancers, nivolumab (Opdivo®) and pembrolizumab (Keytruda®), in clinical trials. Our early work has suggested they have very high response rates.

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What are the next steps for your research?

For patients who need radiation therapy, we are looking at ways to do it more safely. I’m planning a study with radiation oncologist Oren Cahlon that looks at substantially decreasing the size of the areas treated with standard techniques or using newer, more precise techniques such as proton beam therapy, compared with current radiation therapy programs, to reduce exposure to other organs and tissues that might be damaged and lead to late complications.

It’s sad for me when these patients whose cancer I have treated come back to see me years later and they’re suffering from all these side effects. It is also very frustrating to have cured the Hodgkin lymphoma only to have them die of the complications of treatment. And although the radiation therapy that’s given today is safer than what was used when many of these now-middle aged patients were treated, we think that it could be administered even more safely if it is necessary.

Because of that, I believe that what we’re doing here is important research that could ultimately benefit many patients who are often young and have long lives ahead of them.

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Dr. Straus’s study was sponsored by the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, and the Southwest Oncology Group. It was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute under grants U10CA180821, U10CA180820, and U10CA180888.


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Since there was no mention of sub-typing the HL, can I assume the article was referring only to the "traditional" form of HL, as opposed to my own type, Lymphocyte Prominence HL?

Allan, you are correct that this study included only patients with the classical form of Hodgkin lymphoma, which makes up about 95% of all cases. It did not include patients with other subtypes.

Thank you for your comment.

I was treated by Dr. Straus in 1988/89 at the age of 30. I am now 58. I received MOPP/ABVD then radiation treatments. I had HL stage 3B. I am particularly interested in the new studies and how it will benefit future patients. I suspect I have some long-term issues from the treatments but am thankful for all that I've gotten to do and see in the 27+ years since I first met Dr. Straus.

I first met Dr. David Straus in 1988 when I was diagnosed with HL 3B. I was treated with MOPP/ABVD and then radiation. I am particularly interested in these new studies and how they will benefit future patients. I am sure I am dealing with the effects of my treatments and I understand the long-term outlook. However, I will follow with great interest the progress being made so that these young patients see a greater than 25% survival rate at the 40 year mark. Keep up the great work Dr. Straus.

I would appreciate an update on research and advances in non- hotchkin lymphoma, especially follicular.
Thank You!

Dear Irene, to learn more about our treatment approach for people with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, please visit….

If you are interested in our clinical trials evaluating new treatments for follicular lymphoma, please visit

You may also be interested in reading the National Cancer Institute’s overview on treatment for the disease here:

We hope this information is helpful.

I had a colleague at work who had been treated in his mid-20's with Hodkins at MSKCC in 1973. I knew, as a school social worker and father of a son who had been treated at MSKCC for ALL (1978-81) that if my colleague were not careful with assuming more stress as he climbed "the ladder of success," his cancer would return. Unfortunately, he was good at giving health advice but not accepting any such advice from others. Sadly, he succumbed to cancer at the age of 59, preventable if he only could have accepted himself as a school psychologist and not aspire to become superintendent of schools in our district, which physically eroded his immune system. He would most likely be alive today at age 67 had he been humble enough to accept others' research-informed advice. He was treated at MSKCC, receiving the best of cancer care that western civilization has to offer. My son is alive today thanks be to God and Dr. Peter Steinherz, MD, pediatric oncologist at MSKCC. Biopsyhosocial factors play a critical role in long-term cancer survivorship.

I had Hodgkins Lymphoma in 1989. I was treated at Sloan Kettering by Dr. Carol Portlock. I am nervous about everything that can happen now because of the 6 months of ABVD chemo and 30 radiation treatments. What type of symptoms would you have is you had any heart problems. Thank you for trying to find ways to lessen treatments now.

Dear Donna, MSK offers follow-up care through a survivorship clinic to help lymphoma survivors who have been cared for at MSK manage late effects some people develop as a result of treatment, such as heart disease. To learn more, please visit… or call 212-639-5324 to schedule a visit. Thank you for reaching out to us.

I was just diagnose with MM on October 13 2016
Since it's a disease that affect the blood first do u treat this kinda of cancer? Thanks!

Dear Novlette, we are sorry to hear about your diagnosis. Our specialists treat people with all types of cancer, including multiple myeloma. If you would like to make an appointment, please contact our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225.

For more information about becoming a patient at MSK, please visit

To learn more about treatment for multiple myeloma, please go to

Thank you for reaching out to us.

I was treated for Hodgkins 1979 - 1981. Lots of radiation (ineffective) and MOPP chemo (harsh, but it worked). I recovered quite well, with some lung scarring from the radiation. Able to lead a very active life, though never quite as athletic as I'd have wanted to be. 33 years post-radiation I developed breast cancer. Now I have more serious heart and lung problems, all most likely from the radiation. Thank you for working to give future HL patients a healthier life.

Dear Elizabeth, we’re sorry to hear that you’re experiencing these late effects of your treatment. Thank you for sharing your story, and best wishes to you.

My daughter was diagnosed with HL Stage 2B in 2015, at the age of 19. By the grace of God, we chose not to write off a small lump near her neck as a swollen gland. She was diagnosed and treated by Dr. Michael Wax in Berkeley Heights, NJ. She had six cycles of AVBD -- with no signs of disease after the 3rd treatment --and Dr. Wax felt the risks of radiation outweighed the benefits. He too spoke of patients who returned to him 20 years later with a secondary cancer. This is important work you are doing at MSK!! Thank you for making a difference in the lives of others who will face this disease in the future.

If Dr. Straus needs an interesting case to add to his study, I was diagnosed with Hodgkin's Lymphoma in 1968 at age 4. I am still here nearly 50 years later. Just found out I have radiation induced carotid stenosis. My treatment was involved field radiation alone.

For those who continue to read and follow this thread - I can't stress enough how important it is to have your follow-ups if you were previously treated as Dr. Straus outlines in this piece.

As mentioned in my comments a couple years ago - I was diagnosed 30 years ago this month (at age 30) with Stage IIIB Hodgkin Lymphoma. I was treated with MOPP then ABVD (by Dr. Straus) then radiation. I was diligent about going to my annual follow-ups. I was diagnosed with Sarcoidosis in 1996. I had a Non-small cell lung cancer (left upper lobe) removed in 2010. In 2017 I was diagnosed with lung cancer in my right lung which resulted in a lobectomy of the right upper and middle lobe. I also had positive lymph nodes outside of the tumor and lung.

Ask questions and be your own advocate. I was followed yearly by a pulmonologist at MSKCC since 1996. In 2015 they said I could cut back to every 2 years. I raised the concern about missing something over that long a duration. Well, I didn't go with my gut instinct and tried to wait the 2 years. By then - I already had symptoms and the new cancer had grown significantly. The takeaway is - trust your doctors but - trust your own instincts more.

Dear Rob, we’re very sorry to hear about your lung cancer diagnosis. Thank you for sharing your experiences, and best wishes to you.