Treating Brain Cancer with Radiation Plus Immunotherapy: A Successful Synergy?

By Matthew Tontonoz,

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

MSK radiation oncologist Kathryn Beal

In this Q&A, MSK radiation oncologist Kathryn Beal discusses recent advances in treating brain cancer with a combination of radiation and immunotherapy.

This week in Boston, radiation oncologists from around the world are attending the annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). On Wednesday, Memorial Sloan Kettering radiation oncologist Kathryn Beal will present what she has learned treating patients at MSK with various combinations of radiation therapy and immunotherapy.  

The topic of radiation and immunotherapy garnered national attention last December, when President Jimmy Carter announced he was cancer free after receiving such a combination for melanoma.

We spoke with Dr. Beal to find out more about this emerging area of medicine.

Tell us about the types of cancer you treat, and how.

I treat people with brain tumors — both primary brain tumors and also brain metastases, which are tumors that have spread from other parts of the body. Brain metastases are about ten times more common than primary brain tumors. For certain cancers, such as melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and even breast cancer, the incidence of brain metastases in patients with stage IV disease is quite high — in the range of 30 to 40%.

In my practice, I do a lot of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), in which focused beams of radiation are used to kill a tumor very precisely. I also design and deliver partial brain and whole brain radiation.

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What’s been your experience with combining radiation and immunotherapy?

Once ipilimumab [a type of immune checkpoint inhibitor] was approved for melanoma, we started using it in combination with SRS for patients with melanoma that had spread to the brain. Interestingly, in about 50% of the brain metastases treated this way, we saw on follow-up imaging scans that the tumors grew to about twice their original size. We saw this in the first 11 patients and thought, Oh my gosh!

We sent these patients to the operating room because we were so concerned. But of those 11 patients, seven of them actually had no evidence of any cancer cells at all. What we saw on the scans was clearly some sort of a reactive process, perhaps related to an enhanced immune response.

We saw this same process happening in subsequent patients and so we just monitored them. By and large, most of the tumors eventually and spontaneously regressed. It was quite remarkable. 

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Tell us a little bit about what you’ll be presenting at ASTRO.

As we gained experience with SRS and ipilimumab, the ipi plus nivolumab combination was approved for melanoma, and then also at about the same time pembrolizumab [another drug that’s similar to nivolumab] was approved. What I’ll be presenting at ASTRO is our experience with combining pembro with SRS at MSK over the past nine months in about 20 patients. These were stage IV melanoma patients with brain metastases who received pembro at the same time as SRS, or pembro followed by SRS about a month later.

What we observed once we started doing this was that patients would come back for their first follow-up, about six to eight weeks after the radiation treatment, and they would have had a very rapid response, or even a complete response. Roughly 35% of the patients had a complete response on the first follow-up MRI and another 30% had a partial response. So about 65% either had a complete response or partial response at the first follow-up. That is really unusual. If you compare that number to patients who have SRS alone, only about 3% have a complete response or partial response on the first follow-up MRI; most of them are just stable. So this was a big change.

And the response seems to be lasting, although the follow-up is relatively short, with a median follow-up of about nine months so far. We also didn’t see any unusual toxicity with this approach.

Are you planning to test the combination of radiation and immunotherapy in other cancers?

Yes, we’re currently planning a study for patients with non-small cell lung cancer that has spread to the brain. That to me is an obvious next group to study because roughly 30 to 40% of patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer eventually develop brain metastases.

There is a lot of interest as well in treating primary brain tumors — specifically high-grade gliomas, or glioblastomas — with checkpoint inhibitors and radiation. There are many clinical trials looking at this now. 

What’s the scientific rationale for combining radiation and immunotherapy?

Radiation is immunogenic. This means that it irritates the tumor and releases antigens, and with that you get an immune response. You see increased numbers of immune cells called T cells in the area after a dose of radiation. But then typically the natural checkpoint processes of your immune system kick in and stop that reaction. So the concept of combining a checkpoint inhibitor with radiation makes a whole lot of sense. You stop the body’s inhibition of your immune system so that you get a bigger immune reaction and allow those T cells to go to work.

Many people have credited immunotherapy, specifically pembrolizumab, for curing Jimmy Carter of cancer. Do you think the radiation he received also played a role?

Pembrolizumab does get into the brain, but I highly doubt that’s what cured Jimmy Carter’s brain metastases. It had to have been the combination, because studies have shown that patients who receive pembro alone typically do not show complete responses in their brain. So I would think his excellent response has to be attributed to the combination of radiation and pembro together. This combination can produce very dramatic responses. We show that very clearly with the data we’re presenting at ASTRO.

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How has the ability to combine immunotherapy and radiation therapy changed your clinical practice?

I started specializing in brain tumors about ten years ago. When I told people that I was going to just treat brain tumors, everyone said, “Oh, that is so depressing! How can you want to do that?” But it’s remarkable how well some of our patients do now — those with metastases in particular. That’s largely due to the contribution of immunotherapy with SRS.

Historically, if you had melanoma and brain metastases, the median survival was four months. Now we have about 20% of patients who have been alive many years after their brain metastases have been treated with SRS and immunotherapy and they appear cured. I have a whole clinic full of patients who I see every three to four months. They come in to get their follow-up MRIs with me. And I tell them they look perfect. And it’s remarkable. It’s a big difference. There’s really nothing better. 

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My mother died of a glioblastoma multiforma which was non responsive to treatment. Have you had any results with combination therapy with patients with this diagnosis?

Dear Elizabeth,
Several clinical trials testing the combination of immunotherapy and radiation in people with glioblastoma multiforme are on going, but results aren't available yet. We will report on these results when they are available. Thank you for your comment.

i felt great having had radiosurgery for 8 nodules on my brain from metastases of my lung cancer stage 4 and receiving inmunotherapy and feeling like i am there is just one reason God is good aloha nyc

Aloha, Alfredo! We are glad to know you are doing well. Thank you for sharing your thoughts on our blog!

My mother is now being treated with SRS on her melanoma brain mets (around 40 of them found). We wanted to combine it with nivo or pembro in parallel, but our doctors refuse to do it together, explaining that immunotherapy can cause swelling in brain and it will be hard to reach brain mets with srs + they are afraid the organism will not stand 2 treatments at once. Can you comment on this? Do you think it is possible to have both treatments at once? Or better first finish the srs therapy?

Hi Anastasia, because every case is different, we are not able to answer these kinds of medical questions on our blog. If you're unhappy with the answers that your mother's doctors are giving you, we recommend you ask them for more clarification or seek out a second opinion. If your mother would like to be seen by someone at MSK, you can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information on making an appointment. Thank you for your comment.

Hoping that just Pembro works for me. Trying to avoid the whole head radiation and potential long term effects like hearing loss or short term memory issues later.

Hi Simon, we're sending good thoughts your way! Thank you for your comment.

My husband was diagnosed with subungual melanoma in January 2013, partial thimb amputated, no lymph node involvement, but as a precautionary measure they put him on Sylatron. Just shy of 2 years into the treatment he developed pyphoria and they stopped the treatment. Then in December 2015 they respected a tumor from his right lung, again no lymph node involvement, and as a precautionary measure they started him on Yeravoy. In February 2016 he developed inflammation in the pituitary glad, so again the treatment was stopped. July 2016 he had a stroke due to a tumor on his left side of his brain, surgery was done tor removed, localized radiation was done, and they began him on Opdivo. October 12 2016 a scan shows that he now has meningeal melanomatosis. He has tested postive for the BRAF V600E mutation. Please... if you can give any advice PLEASE let me know. Thank You.

Dear Holly, we are very sorry to hear about everything your husband has been through. Unfortunately, we cannot offer specific medical recommendations without an in person appointment. If he would like to make an appointment to discuss possible next steps in his care, please call our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225. Thank you for reaching out to us.

Hi! This is very interesting as my girlfriend has GBM. I'm am very interested in combination therapy. After all in the past, when there treatment options such as surgery, chemo, and radiation were available, it wasn't until the combination of the three or two was utilized that survival improved.

You mentioned surgery, chemo, and radiation, "Now we have about 20% of patients who have been alive many years after their brain metastases have been treated with SRS and immunotherapy and they appear cured." What is happening to the remaining 80% and what do you think is the cause in different outcomes?

Thank you so much!

Michael, thank you for your question. At this point, it's not clear why this combination treatment doesn't work in many patients. There could be a variety of reasons for this, but clinicians and researchers are investigating this further in hopes of expanding its effectiveness.

Hi thank you for taking my question. My mom was recently diagnosed with a brain tumor. Biopsy this friday. They felt that it isn't resectable, too deep and close to the basal ganglia. So chemo and possibly radiotherapy. The idea of immunotherapy , Radiation therapy and chemo seems to make sense. Might you have any thoughts re treatment options. Thank you scott

Dear Dr. Russo, we are sorry to hear about your mother's brain tumor. We cannot offer treatment recommendations on our blog without knowing more about her and her condition. If you would like to make an appointment with one of our specialists to discuss possible treatment options - including immunotherapy - and next steps in her care, please call our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225. Thank you for reaching out to us.

Hello! I just read something here very intersting. My husband has stage IV lung non small cell with brain mets. He has had several sterotactical treatment along with wbt and now on his last mri from nov showed SEVEN more. And they were not little. He is now on his fourth treatment of Whole brain therapy AGAIN because 4 out of the seven are too close and can cause necrosis of healthy tissue. I read that the Opdivio can cause enlargement and then shrinkage. I am sick that maybe we jumped into this too quickly. Also, His oncologist said the two treatments he received of the opdiva is working as his tumor shrunk even more and no other signs of metastases throughout his scan. Its just his brain and she keeps saying opdiva does not work with the brain. Is there any hope these monsters will stop developing in his brain. Thank you Stacey

Dear Stacey, we are sorry to hear about your husband's diagnosis. If you would like to make an appointment for a second opinion and consult with one of our specialists about possible next steps in his care, please call our Physician Referral Service at 800-525-2225. Thank you for reaching out to us.

Our daughter was diagnosed in February 2014 with Grade 3 Anaplastic Astrocytoma primary tumor. Surgery followed by radiation and Temozolomide. Thankfully, her scans since show no evidence of active disease. If there were to be a recurrence, could radiation plus immunotherapy be used?

Dear Victoria, we're sorry to hear about your daughter's diagnosis. Unfortunately, we are not able to answer questions about individual cases on our blog. If you would like your daughter to come to MSK for treatment or a second opinion, you can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information on making an appointment. Thank you for your comment, and best wishes to you and your family.

My sons girlfriend was diagnosed with ependymoma last February 2026. After a 12 hour surgery, they were able to remove 95% of the brain tumor. There was also a small tumor on her c spine. Both areas were treated with radiation. In following up over subsequent months, the c spine tumor is gone but she was given chemo pills for the remaining brain tumor. As of her last follow up, yesterday, the brain tumor is growing. Her last scan was 6 weeks ago and she has been on chemo pills daily since then. I think the drug is Temador? She was told she has had the lifetime "max" of radiation? Her doctors/oncologist plan on meeting to discuss a treatment plan. Would immunotherapy be a consideration? She's only 26 years old and we are seeking a second opinion.

Dear Susan, we're sorry to hear about your son's girlfriend. If she would like to come to MSK for a second opinion, she can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information on making an appointment. Thank you for your comment, and best wishes to you and your family.

Hi doc,
Do you have any recommendations on scientific publications regarding glioblastoma and immunotherapy? My mother has recently been diagnosed and they are running a trial with chemo, radiation and Opdivo. I couldn't find a lot of publications on this topic (except one stating it doesn't work). So suggestions on further reading on forms of immunotherapies with promising results would be most welcome.

Dear Anjie, we're sorry to hear about your mother's diagnosis. We found a few articles that may be useful to you.

From the National Cancer Institute:

From the Cancer Research Institute:

Here is a review article written by some of our experts, but it is a few years old:

MSK has a number of trials evaluating different immunotherapies in combination with other types of treatment for GBM. If your mother would like to come to MSK for a consultation, she can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information on making an appointment. Thank you for your comment, and best wishes to you and your family.

Have you had any experience treating metatastic brain tumor from bladder cancer (we're facing now) using SRS and immunotherapy?

Dear Patti, we sent your question to Dr. Beal, and she replied that she has treated several patients with metastatic bladder cancer that has spread to the brain using the combination of immunotherapy and concurrent SRS. She said that some of these patients with bladder cancer and other cancer types have had great success, including one who had about seven brain metastases from bladder cancer. If you would like to arrange for a consultation to learn more about this treatment, you can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information on making an appointment. Thank you for your comment, and best wishes to you.

my brother was diagnosed with Stage 3A NSCLC in May of 2017. He had surgery to remove cancer. He began chemo but they soon found a tiny spot on his liver in November 2017. He was started on Opdivo. The spot on his liver disappeared within two months. He had clean scans until this past July 2017, when it looked as if there were changes on the suture line he had surgery at. The told us not to be too concerned that the would watch. On August 3rd, doctor gave him a break off of opdivo treatment due to minor side effects. He resumed treatment on August 17th. Two weeks later he suffered cardiac tamponade with malignant cells present. He missed his opdivo treatment due to the tamponade but resumed it the following week. In late October he had a petscan and a small lesion showed up on his hip. He received radiation for that. In early November they did an MRI on his brain and found 11 spots all 9mm and under. We have to decide between WBR or clinical trial SRS. Which would you recommend.

Dear Kathy, we're sorry to hear about your brother's diagnosis. We are not able to offer treatment recommendations on our blog, but if your brother would like to come to MSK for a consultation or second opinion, he can call 800-525-2225 or go to for more information on making an appointment. Thank you for your comment, and best wishes to you and your family.

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