This information will explain your lumbar puncture procedure at Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK).
A lumbar puncture is a procedure that’s done to get a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is the fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord. Other names for lumbar puncture are “spinal tap” or an “LP.”
Your healthcare provider may need to take a sample of your CSF to check for problems such as:
- An infection, such as meningitis
- Cancer that has spread to the tissues surrounding your brain or spinal cord
Your healthcare provider may also do a lumbar puncture to give certain types of medication directly into the area surrounding your spinal cord. These medications may be:
- Anesthesia (medications that block pain)
- Cancer-fighting medications (such as chemotherapy)
Before Your Procedure
Tell your healthcare provider if you are:
- Allergic to iodine (an ingredient in Betadine®).
- Sensitive or allergic to any adhesives such as tape.
- Taking any blood thinners. Some examples of blood thinners are heparin, warfarin (Coumadin®), clopidogrel (Plavix®), enoxaparin (Lovenox®), and tinzaparin (Innohep®). There are others, so be sure your doctor knows all the medications you’re taking.
The Day of Your Procedure
Check your appointment reminder for information on where to go.
For your procedure, you will either be lying on your side and hugging your legs, or sitting upright and leaning over a table so that your back is curved in a “C” shape. It’s very important to stay still during the procedure.
Your nurse will clean the area around your lower back with an antimicrobial solution. They will give you an injection (shot) of local anesthesia (numbing medication) into the area so that you won’t feel any pain.
Once the area is numb, your healthcare provider will gently insert a needle between 2 of the bones in your spine (vertebrae) and into the space filled with CSF. The CSF will drip out of the needle and your doctor or nurse will collect it in a vial. If you will be getting medication into your spinal cord during the procedure, this will happen after the fluid is removed.
A bandage (Band-Aid®) will be placed on the area where the needle was inserted.Back to top
After Your Procedure
You may be asked to lie flat on your back for up to 30 minutes.
You can remove the bandage the day after your procedure.
You may get a headache after your lumbar puncture. This happens because the spot where the needle goes in doesn’t always close up right away. If the hole stays open, CSF can leak out, causing a headache.
In most cases, the hole will close up on its own and the headache will go away in 1 to 2 days. You can take over-the-counter pain medication for the headache, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or ibuprofen (Advil®). Lying down may also make you feel better
Caffeine can also help to reduce headaches. One 8-ounce cup of coffee has about 150 milligrams of caffeine. You can try drinking 1 to 2 cups of coffee per day to relieve your headache.
If your headache doesn’t improve within 2 to 3 days, call your doctor. They may give you a treatment called a “blood patch.” This involves taking a small amount of your blood and injecting it into the area where the LP was performed. The blood will fill the hole and the headache will go away.Back to top
Call Your Healthcare Provider if You Have:
- Any signs of infection at the site. Signs of an infection are redness, swelling, discharge at the site, and a temperature of 101º F (38.3º C) or higher.
- Bleeding at the site.
- Pain or numbness in your back or legs.