Our experts can usually cure colon cancer if they find it early enough. But the more that colon cancer grows, the more difficult it can be to treat.
- For people with an average risk who have no symptoms, MSK’s doctors recommend screening tests for colon cancer, starting at age 45.
- People at a higher risk may benefit from earlier, more frequent screenings.
- At any age, if you are worried about symptoms and wonder if you should talk to your doctor about screening, it’s a conversation worth having.
- While there are many types of colorectal cancer screening tests, colonoscopy is the only test that can find polyps and remove them. This means that a colonoscopy can both find and prevent colon cancer.
Today, more than 60 percent of people age 50 to 75 are regularly screened for the disease. Doctors are detecting colon cancer more often and at an earlier stage, when it’s most treatable. In fact, 90 percent of people with colon cancer live five years or more after treatment if the cancer is found and removed at any early stage.
MSK’s screening guidelines for colorectal cancer are based on your risk and factors specific to you. These include your age, personal and medical history, and genetics.
- What is the average risk of colon cancer?
- What is an increased risk of colon cancer?
- What should I know about family history and the genetic causes of colon cancer?
- What if I have been treated for cancer before?
- What should I know about colon cancer if I am under age 45?
- What should I know about screening tests for colon cancer?
If you are age 45 or older, you are at an average risk of colon cancer if you have the following:
- no symptoms
- no personal or family history of colorectal cancer or precancerous polyps (noncancerous growths in the inside surface of the colon or rectum)
- no personal history of inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s colitis
If you have an increased risk of colorectal cancer, discuss with your doctor if you should have earlier, more frequent screenings.
You are at an increased risk if you have one of the following:
- a personal history of colorectal cancer or precancerous polyps
- a family history of a first-degree relative (such as a parent or sibling) who had cancer or precancerous polyps in the colon or rectum before age 50, or multiple family members with colorectal cancer or polyps
- a personal history of long-standing (more than eight years) inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s colitis
- a family history of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). This condition is a rare form of hereditary colon cancer. FAP can lead to the development of hundreds or thousands of polyps in the colon at a very early age. If left untreated, people with FAP will almost always develop colon cancer by age 40.
- a family history of Lynch syndrome (formerly known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer). This condition is caused by mutations in specific genes. It accounts for approximately 2 to 3 percent of all colorectal cancer diagnoses.
If you have more than one family member with colon or rectal cancer, or if you have a family member who had early-onset colorectal cancer (before age 50), your care team can help determine if you may be at risk of a possible hereditary condition that makes you more likely to develop cancer. If your care team feels that you may be at risk, we can refer you to our Clinical Genetics Service for further evaluation and customized screening options.Back to top
You may have an increased risk of colorectal cancer if you’ve had therapy for another type of cancer. In that case, your care team may recommend more frequent screenings.Back to top
Real progress is being made against colon cancer, as more people are screened and treatment options improve. But in recent years there is a disturbing rise in colon cancer diagnoses in people under 50. MSK doctors and scientists are working to find out what’s behind this troubling trend. MSK has established the first center focused on people with colon cancer under 50.Back to top
There are many types of colorectal cancer screening tests. Colonoscopy is the only test that can both find and remove small clumps of cells on the inner lining of the colon, called polyps. This means that a colonoscopy can both find and prevent colon cancer.