Colorectal Cancer Nomogram Glossary

Colorectal Cancer Nomogram Glossary

Adjuvant Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy administered after surgery

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)

A tumor marker for colorectal cancer


The pouch that forms the first part of the large intestine

Complete Resection

Surgical removal of all cancerous tissue

Localized Cancer

Cancer that is restricted to the site of origin, without evidence of spread, or metastasis, to distant sites.

Lymphovascular Invasion

Whether the presence of one or more tumor cells was found in the lymphatic or vascular structure


The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another

Negative Lymph Node

If a lymph node is “negative,” cancer cells are not present within the node

Perineural Invasion

Whether the presence of one or more tumor cells was found in or around the nerves

Positive Lymph Nodes

If a lymph node is “positive,” cancer cells are present within the node

Rectosigmoid, or Sigmoid, Colon

The S-shaped section of the colon that connects to the rectum


Cancer that has returned after complete surgical resection.

Staging System of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)

A categorical staging system commonly used to convey risk by grouping patients based on anatomic elements.

T-Stage (also known as depth of tumor penetration)

The stage of the tumor; this is based upon the TNM anatomic staging system

TNM (Tumor, Node, and Metastasis) Anatomic Staging System

The present “gold standard” for risk assessment; based on two elements for patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer: 1) the extent of tumor penetration into the intestinal wall (T-Stage) and 2) the number of localized lymph nodes containing metastases (N-Stage).

Tumor Differentiation

The degree of atypical cellular architecture atypical cellular formations as noted by the pathologist. Tumors can be labeled as poor, moderate, or well differentiated.