Acupuncture is a therapeutic component of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Common Names

  • Manual acupuncture
  • Electroacupuncture
  • Acustimulation
  • Acupressure

For Patients & Caregivers

What Is It

Acupuncture is a therapeutic component of Traditional Chinese Medicine. It involves the use of very thin needles along with heat, pressure, or electricity to stimulate points on the body, promoting the flow and balance of internal energy.

Acupuncture is effective in treating chronic pain and some symptoms associated with cancer treatment. Studies have shown benefit with acupuncture for postoperative pain, sleep, nausea and vomiting, hot flashes, peripheral neuropathy, and other side effects caused by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. It may also reduce symptoms such as depression, headache, lower back or neck pain, shortness of breath, and chronic fatigue. 

Acupuncture treatments are generally safe and well tolerated by most patients, including pediatric patients and the elderly. Some conditions may require continuous treatments in order to achieve long-term effect.

How It Works

According to TCM, acupuncture points are thought to be located at specific areas along channels or meridians. Qi (pronounced chee, meaning energy) is believed to flow in this network of channels which connect different parts of the body and organs into a unified system. Pain and symptoms of disease are thought to arise when the flow of Qi is stagnated. Acupuncture treatments are used to promote the flow and balance of Qi to relieve symptoms. It is also known to release pain-relieving or feel-good chemicals in the brain.

Studies in animals and humans have shown that acupuncture can stimulate pain relief, and reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Other studies have shown it can improve sleep, increases blood flow, and may help reduce inflammation, which may also explain pain-relieving effects.

MRI studies show that acupuncture causes changes in the brain that reflect changes in the body. Neuroimaging studies have shown that certain acupoints for dry mouth correlate to saliva production. Studies in patients with peripheral neuropathy show that acupuncture improves nerve signaling.

Researchers are continuing to examine the mechanisms by which acupuncture exerts these effects. Additional findings may help to optimize treatment regimens in the future.

Purported Uses
  • Cancer treatment-related symptoms
    A number of clinical trials support the use of acupuncture in relieving pain, nausea and vomiting, dry mouth, fatigue, hot flashes, and peripheral neuropathy resulting from cancer treatments. In some studies, benefits have been noted to last well after treatment.  
  • Pain
    Several clinical trials showed that acupuncture is effective in alleviating pain, including joint or nerve pain associated with some cancer treatments.
  • Sleep
    Several clinical trials in cancer patients and other populations suggest that acupuncture improves sleep.
  • Fatigue
    Several clinical trials show that acupuncture reduces fatigue, including cancer-related fatigue.
  • Anxiety
    Several studies have shown that acupressure and acupuncture can help to relieve anxiety related to tests and procedures. It may also help with anxiety in general.
  • Depression
    Acupuncture may reduce depressive symptoms, although results were mixed for major depressive disorder. 
  • Nausea and vomiting
    Current oncology guidelines recommend acupuncture and acupressure for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A number of studies also support its use for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and in pediatric cancer populations. 
  • Constipation
    Some evidence suggests acupuncture may be helpful for constipation.
  • Headache
    This use is supported by clinical trials.
  • Fibromyalgia
    A clinical study finds acupuncture can reduce symptoms of fibromyalgia.
  • Infertility
    Although studies have mixed results, several large trials have not found acupuncture helpful for infertility.
  • Allergy
    A few studies have shown that acupuncture is useful in treating allergic rhinitis when used along with standard care. It may also be helpful on its own in pediatric populations.
  • Smoking
    Studies on whether acupuncture may help in smoking cessation are mixed. Additional studies are needed.
Side Effects

Acupuncture is generally safe when performed by trained practitioners. Failure to remove needles, bleeding, hematoma, dizziness, and pain have been reported. Rare instances of collapsed lung, local infections, or burns caused by moxibustion have occurred.

Acupuncture should be avoided or additional precautions taken if:

  • You have low white blood cell count, low platelet count, or heart murmur (symptom of endocarditis): Acupuncture may increase risk of infection and bleeding.
  • You wear a pacemaker: Electrical stimulation is not advised for patients wearing electronic medical devices.
  • You have lymphedema: Patients with lymphedema should inform their practitioners before receiving treatment.
  • You are pregnant: Some acupuncture points can cause strong uterine contractions. Pregnant women should inform practitioners before seeking acupuncture treatment.
Who Can Provide this Service

Cancer patients considering acupuncture should seek certified or state-licensed practitioners who have training or experience in working with this population. Some oncology physicians may also be board-certified acupuncturists.

Where Can I Get Treatment

A majority of National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer centers offer acupuncture as part of supportive care. Clinical trials at MSK are underway to evaluate acupuncture in patients with advanced cancers and for chronic pain.

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For Healthcare Professionals

Clinical Summary

Acupuncture is an integral component of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that originated more than 2,000 years ago. Treatment involves stimulation of one or more predetermined points on the body along with needles, heat (moxibustion), pressure (acupressure), or electricity (electroacupuncture, EA) for therapeutic effect.

Acupuncture is beneficial for osteoarthritis of the knee (1) (2) (3), chronic neck pain (4), Bell’s palsy (72), and fibromyalgia symptoms (5). In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, acupuncture reduced pain, joint swelling, and tenderness and improved strength and quality of life (117). Acupressure (6) and acupuncture (7) (8) (9) were superior to physical therapy and/or usual care in treating patients with low back pain. In a meta-analysis of chronic pain patients, long-term benefits were found to persist post-treatment (118).

Acupuncture reduced high blood pressure (10) and hot flash severity (11) in postmenopausal women, but effects in menopausal patients are mixed (95) (97). It was as effective as counseling for depression symptoms (77), but had mixed results for treating major depressive disorder (12) (13). Acupuncture reduced stroke risk in patients with traumatic brain injury (78). Data from clinical trials also support its use for chronic headache (20) (21) (22), and although there was no difference between true and sham acupuncture, both treatments were more effective compared with a no-acupuncture control (23).

Studies have found electroacupuncture helpful for urinary incontinence (100) (119). Clinical studies on outcomes following in vitro fertilization have yielded conflicting results (24) (25) (26) (27) (28). More recently in large trials, acupuncture did not improve birth rates with IVF (104) or polycystic ovary syndrome infertility (101). Acupuncture did not reduce pain in women undergoing induced labor (29), but reduced symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain (30), and decreased procedural anxiety in patients undergoing lithotripsy (31). In children, acupressure also appeared to reduce preprocedural anxiety (32), while EA reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) (83). Acupuncture may benefit patients with allergic rhinitis (33) (34), including pediatric patients (47). Preliminary evidence also suggests it may be helpful for constipation (48) (105).

As an adjunct to standard treatment, acupuncture helped treat dyspnea on exertion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) (62), and improved nutritional status (120). It also improved health-related quality of life for those with allergic asthma (99). Studies on whether acupuncture may help in smoking cessation are mixed (61) (84) (85).

Current oncology guidelines recommend acupuncture and acupressure for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) (108). In addition, data suggest acupuncture may be helpful in cancer pain management (106) (107) and a recent meta-analysis found that acupuncture and/or acupressure was significantly associated with reduced cancer pain and decreased use of analgesics (116). In patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, acupuncture prevented escalation of nausea, lack of appetite, and drowsiness, and reduced pain medication use (103). In lung cancer patients, preliminary evidence suggests acupuncture may improve fatigue (109), pain, and well-being (76).

Several studies on acupuncture for sleep disorders have been conducted that demonstrated clinically relevant improvements in insomnia (112) (122) and lasting effects post-therapy (123). Similar improvements were observed in cancer patients (111); and in survivors, in a trial that compared acupuncture with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) (121). Furthermore, secondary analysis of data from this study revealed that in the acupuncture group, participants with clinically meaningful responses with regard to insomnia showed greater improvements in subjective cognitive function compared to those without clinically meaningful insomnia responses (129).

In breast cancer patients, acupuncture alleviated aromatase inhibitor-induced joint pain (110) and stiffness, and improved physical well-being (46) (74) and quality of life (96). EA significantly improved fatigue, anxiety, and depression as well as arthralgia compared with usual care (86) (87). In patients receiving neurotoxic chemotherapies, acupuncture improved peripheral neuropathy and other symptoms in addition to pain (18) (19) (80) (115) (124) (130) with long-term improvements observed post treatment (125). Benefits with acupuncture have also been observed for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes (15), AIDS (16) (17).

For hot flashes, acupuncture was as effective as standard care in breast cancer patients (45), and early phase studies also suggest it may relieve hot flashes in prostate cancer patients (64) (65) (66). In addition, EA was more effective than gabapentin with fewer side effects (82), and comparable to gabapentin for improving sleep quality (98). Studies on whether acupuncture can reduce lymphedema are mixed (113) (114). Acupuncture did not reduce postoperative ileus from standard surgery (40) (56), but EA did reduce postoperative ileus and analgesic use after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer (73)

In palliative cancer care, acupuncture is being evaluated as an intervention to reduce cachexia and unintentional weight loss (88) (89). Various forms of acupuncture have been found to alleviate pain (35) (36) (67), and a metanalysis determined this effect is more than just placebo (126). It also improved xerostomia following head and neck radiotherapy (36) (43) (44) (63) (70), fatigue (37) (71), PONV (38) (91), and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) (39) (41) (81) (92) (93).
In addition, preliminary findings suggest utility of auricular acupuncture for improving appetite in patients with advanced cancer (131). Another trial to determine the comparative effectiveness of electro-acupuncture versus auricular acupuncture against chronic musculoskeletal pain is underway (132).

Acupuncture is generally safe, well tolerated (47) (48) (49) (68) (69), and cost-effective (9) (33) (34). Some conditions require continuous treatments in order to achieve long-term effect. Animal studies suggest caffeine can inhibit the pain relieving effect of acupuncture (102). Pregnant women, patients with lymphedema, those wearing pacemakers, and those with low platelet count should inform their practitioners before receiving treatment.

Cancer patients considering acupuncture should seek certified or state-licensed practitioners who have training or experience in working with cancer patients. Some oncology physicians may also be board-certified acupuncturists. Clinical trials at MSK are underway to evaluate acupuncture in patients with advanced cancers and for chronic pain.

Purported Uses
  • Cancer treatment-related symptoms
  • Pain
  • Sleep
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Infertility
  • Allergy
  • Smoking cessation
Mechanism of Action

According to TCM, acupuncture points are thought to be located at specific areas along channels or meridians. Qi (pronounced chee, meaning energy) is believed to flow in this network of channels which connect different parts of the body and organs into a unified system. Pain and symptoms of disease are thought to arise when the flow of Qi is stagnated. Acupuncture treatments are used to promote the flow of Qi to relieve symptoms. It is also known to stimulate release of endogenous opioids.

Animal studies suggest acupuncture induces analgesia through different opioid receptors under varying conditions (53), but that effect was blocked by naloxone, an opioid antagonist (50) (51). Further, mice lacking opiate receptors showed low analgesic effect following electroacupuncture (EA) (52). Acupuncture also increases neuropeptide Y suggesting it may help to reduce stress and depression (59) (60). Acupuncture protects against cerebral ischemia by increasing blood flow to the ischemic brain region via neural regulation (55). The systemic anti-inflammatory activities of EA are thought to be modulated by dopamine (79).

In patients with fibromyalgia, analgesic effects of acupuncture are attributed to increased mu-Opioid receptor binding potential (127). In patients with peripheral neuropathy, acupuncture improves nerve conduction (14). Needling of LI-2, one of several acupoints used to treat xerostomia, was associated with neuroimaging changes correlated to saliva production (58). Other studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) also show that acupuncture elicits brain changes that correlate with neurological effects produced (57). A meta-analysis of fMRI research confirmed that acupuncture modulates a variety of brain activity including somatosensory, affective, and cognitive processing (127).

Long-term benefits seen with EA and to a lesser extent sham-EA post-treatment for hot flashes among breast cancer survivors suggest that both interventions produce underlying physiologic changes not induced by gabapentin (82). That sham-EA demonstrated greater effects with reduced nocebo effects than pill-placebo (82) also may explain why some acupuncture trials find similar efficacy between active and sham interventions. Other data indicate that higher baseline expectancy predicts treatment response with sham-EA but not EA, suggesting divergent mechanisms and that patients with low expectancy may do better with EA than sham (94).

  • Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or history of endocarditis
    Acupuncture may increase risk of infection and bleeding. Use with caution.
  • Pregnancy
    Pregnant women should inform practitioners before seeking acupuncture treatment.
  • Pacemakers
    Electrical stimulation is contraindicated for patients wearing electronic medical devices.
Adverse Reactions

Acupuncture is generally safe when performed by trained practitioners. Failure to remove needles, bleeding, hematoma, dizziness, and pain have been reported. Pneumothorax, local infections, and burns caused by moxibustion are rare (49) (68) (69).

Dosage (OneMSK Only)
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  2. Scharf HP, Mansmann U, Streitberger K, et al. Acupuncture and knee osteoarthritis: a three-armed randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. Jul 4 2006;145(1):12-20.
  3. Witt CM, Jena S, Brinkhaus B, et al. Acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip: a randomized, controlled trial with an additional nonrandomized arm. Arthritis Rheum. Nov 2006;54(11):3485-3493.
  4. White P, Lewith G, Prescott P, et al. Acupuncture versus placebo for the treatment of chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. Dec 21 2004;141(12):911-919.
  5. Vas J, Santos-Rey K, Navarro-Pablo R, et al. Acupuncture for fibromyalgia in primary care: a randomised controlled trial. Acupunct Med. 2016 Aug;34(4):257-66.
  6. Hsieh LL, Kuo CH, Lee LH, et al. Treatment of low back pain by acupressure and physical therapy: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. Mar 25 2006;332(7543):696-700.
  7. Thomas KJ, MacPherson H, Thorpe L, et al. Randomised controlled trial of a short course of traditional acupuncture compared with usual care for persistent non-specific low back pain. BMJ. Sep 23 2006;333(7569):623.
  8. Haake M, Muller HH, Schade-Brittinger C, et al. German Acupuncture Trials (GERAC) for chronic low back pain: randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel-group trial with 3 groups. Arch Intern Med. Sep 24 2007;167(17):1892-1898.
  9. Ratcliffe J, Thomas KJ, MacPherson H, et al. A randomised controlled trial of acupuncture care for persistent low back pain: cost effectiveness analysis. BMJ. Sep 23 2006;333(7569):626.
  10. Flachskampf FA, Gallasch J, Gefeller O, et al. Randomized trial of acupuncture to lower blood pressure. Circulation. Jun 19 2007;115(24):3121-3129.
  11. Huang MI, Nir Y, Chen B, et al. A randomized controlled pilot study of acupuncture for postmenopausal hot flashes: effect on nocturnal hot flashes and sleep quality. Fertil Steril. Sep 2006;86(3):700-710.
  12. Allen JJ, Schnyer RN, Chambers AS, et al. Acupuncture for depression: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. Nov 2006;67(11):1665-1673.
  13. Andreescu C, Glick RM, Emeremni CA, et al. Acupuncture for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. Aug 2011;72(8):1129-1135.
  14. Schroder S, Liepert J, Remppis A, et al. Acupuncture treatment improves nerve conduction in peripheral neuropathy. Eur J Neurol. Mar 2007;14(3):276-281.
  15. Ahn AC, Bennani T, Freeman R, et al. Two styles of acupuncture for treating painful diabetic neuropathy—a pilot randomised control trial. Acupunct Med. Jun 2007;25(1-2):11-17.
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  17. Phillips KD, Skelton WD, Hand GA. Effect of acupuncture administered in a group setting on pain and subjective peripheral neuropathy in persons with human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Altern Complement Med. Jun 2004;10(3):449-455.
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  20. Vickers AJ, Rees RW, Zollman CE, et al. Acupuncture for chronic headache in primary care: large, pragmatic, randomised trial. BMJ. Mar 27 2004;328(7442):744.
  21. Xue CC, Dong L, Polus B, et al. Electroacupuncture for tension-type headache on distal acupoints only: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Headache. Apr 2004;44(4):333-341.
  22. Coeytaux RR, Kaufman JS, Kaptchuk TJ, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of acupuncture for chronic daily headache. Headache. Oct 2005;45(9):1113-1123.
  23. Linde K, Streng A, Jurgens S, et al. Acupuncture for patients with migraine: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. May 4 2005;293(17):2118-2125.
  24. Westergaard LG, Mao Q, Krogslund M, et al. Acupuncture on the day of embryo transfer significantly improves the reproductive outcome in infertile women: a prospective, randomized trial. Fertil Steril. May 2006;85(5):1341-1346.
  25. Dieterle S, Ying G, Hatzmann W, et al. Effect of acupuncture on the outcome of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a randomized, prospective, controlled clinical study. Fertil Steril. May 2006;85(5):1347-1351.
  26. Smith C, Coyle M, Norman RJ. Influence of acupuncture stimulation on pregnancy rates for women undergoing embryo transfer. Fertil Steril. May 2006;85(5):1352-1358.
  27. Manheimer E, Zhang G, Udoff L, et al. Effects of acupuncture on rates of pregnancy and live birth among women undergoing in vitro fertilisation: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. Mar 8 2008;336(7643):545-549.
  28. Moy I, Milad MP, Barnes R, et al. Randomized controlled trial: effects of acupuncture on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. Feb 2011;95(2):583-587.
  29. Mackenzie IZ, Xu J, Cusick C, et al. Acupuncture for pain relief during induced labour in nulliparae: a randomised controlled study. BJOG. Mar 2011;118(4):440-447.
  30. Lee SW, Liong ML, Yuen KH, et al. Acupuncture versus sham acupuncture for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain. Am J Med. Jan 2008;121(1):79 e71-77.
  31. Wang SM, Punjala M, Weiss D, et al. Acupuncture as an adjunct for sedation during lithotripsy. J Altern Complement Med. Mar 2007;13(2):241-246.
  32. Wang SM, Escalera S, Lin EC, et al. Extra-1 acupressure for children undergoing anesthesia. Anesth Analg. Sep 2008;107(3):811-816.
  33. Brinkhaus B, Ortiz M, Witt CM, et al. Acupuncture in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Feb 19;158(4):225-34.
  34. Witt CM, Reinhold T, Jena S, et al. Cost-effectiveness of acupuncture in women and men with allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled study in usual care. Am J Epidemiol. Mar 1 2009;169(5):562-571.
  35. Alimi D, Rubino C, Pichard-Leandri E, et al. Analgesic effect of auricular acupuncture for cancer pain: a randomized, blinded, controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. Nov 15 2003;21(22):4120-4126.
  36. Pfister DG, Cassileth BR, Deng GE, et al. Acupuncture for pain and dysfunction after neck dissection: results of a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. May 20 2010;28(15):2565-2570.
  37. Vickers AJ, Straus DJ, Fearon B, et al. Acupuncture for postchemotherapy fatigue: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol. May 1 2004;22(9):1731-1735.
  38. Gan TJ, Jiao KR, Zenn M, et al. A randomized controlled comparison of electro-acupoint stimulation or ondansetron versus placebo for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anesth Analg. Oct 2004;99(4):1070-1075.
  39. Shen J, Wenger N, Glaspy J, et al. Electroacupuncture for control of myeloablative chemotherapy-induced emesis: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. Dec 6 2000;284(21):2755-2761.
  40. Meng ZQ, Garcia MK, Chiang JS, et al. Electro-acupuncture to prevent prolonged postoperative ileus: a randomized clinical trial. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jan 7;16(1):104-11.
  41. Ezzo J, Vickers A, Richardson MA, et al. Acupuncture-point stimulation for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. J Clin Oncol. Oct 1 2005;23(28):7188-7198.
  42. Molassiotis A, Helin AM, Dabbour R, et al. The effects of P6 acupressure in the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients. Complement Th r Med. Mar 2007;15(1):3-12.
  43. Meng Z, Garcia MK, Hu C, et al. Randomized controlled trial of acupuncture for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer. 2012 Jul 1;118(13):3337-44.
  44. Garcia MK, Chiang JS, Cohen L, et al. Acupuncture for radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with cancer: a pilot study. Head Neck. Oct 2009;31(10):1360-1368.
  45. Walker EM, Rodriguez AI, Kohn B, et al. Acupuncture versus venlafaxine for the management of vasomotor symptoms in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. Feb 1 2010;28(4):634-640.
  46. Crew KD, Capodice JL, Greenlee H, et al. Randomized, blinded, sham-controlled trial of acupuncture for the management of aromatase inhibitor-associated joint symptoms in women with early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. Mar 1 2010;28(7):1154-1160.
  47. Ng DK, Chow PY, Ming SP, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of acupuncture for the treatment of childhood persistent allergic rhinitis. Pediatrics. Nov 2004;114(5):1242-1247.
  48. Broide E, Pintov S, Portnoy S, et al. Effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of childhood constipation. Dig Dis Sci. Jun 2001;46(6):1270-1275.
  49. Adams D, Cheng F, Jou H, et al. The Safety of Pediatric Acupuncture: A Systematic Review. Pediatrics. 2011 Dec;128(6):e1575-87
  50. Pomeranz B, Chiu D. Naloxone blockade of acupuncture analgesia: endorphin implicated. Life Sci. Dec 1 1976;19(11):1757-1762.
  51. Pomeranz B, Warma N. Electroacupuncture suppression of a nociceptive reflex is potentiated by two repeated electroacupuncture treatments: the first opioid effect potentiates a second non-opioid effect. Brain Res. Jun 14 1988;452(1-2):232-236.
  52. Peets JM, Pomeranz B. CXBK mice deficient in opiate receptors show poor electroacupuncture analgesia. Nature. Jun 22 1978;273(5664):675-676.
  53. Meng X, Zhang Y, Li A, et al. The effects of opioid receptor antagonists on electroacupuncture-produced anti-allodynia/hyperalgesia in rats with paclitaxel-evoked peripheral neuropathy. Brain Res. Sep 26 2011;1414:58-65.
  54. Stener-Victorin E, Kobayashi R, Watanabe O, et al. Effect of electro-acupuncture stimulation of different frequencies and intensities on ovarian blood flow in anaesthetized rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. Mar 26 2004;2:16.
  55. Zhou F, Guo J, Cheng J, et al. Electroacupuncture increased cerebral blood flow and reduced ischemic brain injury: Dependence on stimulation intensity and frequency. J Appl Physiol. 2011 Dec;111(6):1877-87.
  56. Deng G, Wong WD, Guillem J, et al. A Phase II, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for Reduction of Postcolectomy Ileus. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013 Apr;20(4):1164-9. 
  57. Yoo SS, Teh EK, Blinder RA, et al. Modulation of cerebellar activities by acupuncture stimulation: evidence from fMRI study. Neuroimage. Jun 2004;22(2):932-940.
  58. Deng G, Hou BL, Holodny AI, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) changes and saliva production associated with acupuncture at LI-2 acupuncture point: a randomized controlled study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2008;8:37.
  59. Eshkevari L, Egan R, Phillips D, et al. Acupuncture at ST36 prevents chronic stress-induced increases in neuropeptide Y in rat. Exp Biol Med. 2012 Jan 1;237(1):18-23.
  60. Lim S, Ryu YH, Kim ST, et al. Acupuncture increases neuropeptide Y expression in hippocampus of maternally-separated rats. Neurosci Lett. 2003 May 29;343(1):49-52.
  61. Tahiri M, Mottillo S, Joseph L et al. Alternative Smoking Cessation Aids: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Am J Med. 2012 Jun;125(6):576-84.
  62. Suzuki M, Muro S, Ando Y, et al. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Acupuncture in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The COPD-Acupuncture Trial (CAT). Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(11):878-886.
  63. Wong RK, James JL, Sagar S, et al. Phase 2 results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study 0537: A phase 2/3 study comparing acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus pilocarpine in treating early radiation-induced xerostomia. Cancer. 2012 Sep 1;118(17):4244-52.
  64. Ashamalla H, Jiang ML, Guirguis A, et al. Acupuncture for the alleviation of hot flashes in men treated with androgen ablation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. Apr 1 2011;79(5):1358-1363.
  65. Beer TM, Benavides M, Emmons SL, et al. Acupuncture for hot flashes in patients with prostate cancer. Urology. Nov 2010;76(5):1182-1188.
  66. Capodice J CP, Benson MC, et al. Acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in men with advanced prostate cancer. Int J Clin Med. 2011;2(1):51-55.
  67. Vickers A, Cronin A, Maschino A, et al. Acupuncture for chronic pain: Individual patient data meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2012 Oct 22;172(19):1444-53. 
  68. Melchart D, Weidenhammer W, Streng A, et al. Prospective investigation of adverse effects of acupuncture in 97 733 patients. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 12;164(1):104-5.
  69. He W, Zhao X, Li Y, Xi Q, Guo Y. Adverse events following acupuncture: a systematic review of the chinese literature for the years 1956-2010. J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Oct;18(10):892-901.
  70. Simcock R, Fallowfield L., Monson K. et al. A randomised trial of acupuncture v oral care sessions in patients with chronic xerostomia following treatment of head and neck cancer. Ann Oncol 2013 Mar;24(3):776-83. 
  71. Molassiotis A, Bardy J, Finnegan-John J, Mackereth P, et al. Acupuncture for Cancer-Related Fatigue in Patients With Breast Cancer: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Dec 20;30(36):4470-6.
  72. Xu SB, Huang B, Zhang CY, Du P, et al. Effectiveness of strengthened stimulation during acupuncture for the treatment of Bell palsy: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2013 Apr 2;185(6):473-9.
  73. Ng SS, Leung WW, Mak TW, et al. Electroacupuncture reduces duration of postoperative ileus after laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2013 Feb;144(2):307-313.
  74. Bao T, Cai L, Giles JT, Gould J, et al. A dual-center randomized controlled double blind trial assessing the effect of acupuncture in reducing musculoskeletal symptoms in breast cancer patients taking aromatase inhibitors. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013 Feb;138(1):167-74.
  75. Johansson J, Redman L, Veldhuis PP, et al. Acupuncture for ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May 1;304(9):E934-43.
  76. Kasymjanova G, Grossman M, Tran T, et al. The potential role for acupuncture in treating symptoms in patients with lung cancer: an observational longitudinal study. Curr Oncol. 2013 Jun;20(3):152-7.
  77. MacPherson H, Richmond S, Bland M, et al. Acupuncture and counselling for depression in primary care: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS Med. 2013;10(9):e1001518. 
  78. Shih CC, Hsu YT, Wang HH, et al. Decreased risk of stroke in patients with traumatic brain injury receiving acupuncture treatment: a population-based retrospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e89208. 
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