Does Vitamin D Reduce the Risk of Getting Cancer?

Five people on the beach during a sunset

Vitamin D is often called the sunshine vitamin, but it's also found in many foods.

In June 2018, two papers were published that suggested that high levels of vitamin D circulating in the blood may be associated with a lower risk of cancer. One looked at breast cancer and the other at colon and rectal cancer.

These are only the latest in a large number of studies on vitamin D and cancer published over the past few decades. Some have looked at prevention and others at whether vitamin D improves outcomes after someone has been diagnosed. The findings overall have been mixed.

We spoke with Memorial Sloan Kettering medical oncologists Leonard Saltz, a colorectal cancer expert, and Monica Fornier, a breast cancer expert, about these studies. Here’s what you should know about the “sunshine vitamin” and its connection to cancer.

What did these latest studies show?

The colon cancer study, published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, combined data from 17 other studies that followed a total of more than 12,000 people. It found that levels of vitamin D in the blood that are considered deficient (below 20 nanograms per milliliter, or ng/mL) were associated with a 31% higher cancer incidence compared with those in the high range (between 50 and 62.5 ng/mL).

The breast cancer study, published in PLoS One, looked at more than 5,000 women ages 55 and older. It found that women with high vitamin D levels in their blood (60 ng/mL or more) had an 80 percent lower incidence for breast cancer compared with those who had low levels (20 ng/mL or less). The researchers also found that among women with vitamin D blood levels in the upper range, the highest levels were associated with the lowest incidence.

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What are the limitations of this kind of research?

“These findings are compelling, but we have to be careful about studies that link lifestyle to cancer,” Dr. Fornier says. “It’s hard to make direct connections because there are so many possible factors.”

“One big caveat is that having high vitamin D levels could just mean that someone has a better lifestyle and a healthier diet,” Dr. Saltz adds. “It’s also important to note that a link has not been found in a controlled study looking at whether taking vitamin D after colon cancer surgery can prevent recurrence.”

He also refers to another study, published in July 2018 in JAMA Oncology, which concluded that taking high doses of vitamin D was not associated with cancer prevention and should not be done for this purpose.

One big caveat is that having high vitamin D levels could just mean that someone has a better lifestyle and a healthier diet.
Leonard Saltz medical oncologist
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What does vitamin D do in the body?

One of the most important jobs of vitamin D is maintaining bone health. It helps to promote the absorption of calcium from food into the intestines. It also maintains the levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood that are needed for bone formation and regeneration.

Much less is known about the role that the vitamin might play in cancer, but it may have to do with its function in regulating pathways related to cell growth and regulation. “There are some studies in the lab that suggest vitamin D may have certain cancer prevention properties due to the way it functions,” Dr. Saltz says. “However, the connection to how that may translate to a benefit in people is pretty soft.”

To fully understand the relationship, experts would need to conduct randomized clinical trials. If they were able to confirm the link, these studies could also look at the appropriate dose of vitamin D and determine how long someone would need to take it to see a benefit. 

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Are vitamin D deficiencies becoming more common?

Studies have suggested that more than one billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiencies, including more than 40% of the US population. “People don’t spend their lives outside as much as they used to,” Dr. Fornier explains. “Many people are scared to get any sun at all because of concerns about skin cancer. Of course, it’s important to be careful, but a little bit of sun, especially early or late in the day when it is less strong, is not bad.”

A little bit of sun exposure, especially early or late in the day when it is less strong, is not bad.

Diet also plays a role, and many people may not consume enough foods that are rich in vitamin D. These foods include certain types of fish and other seafood and eggs. Some foods, including milk, orange juice, and many cereals, are also fortified with vitamin D.

Dr. Fornier adds that because of the side effects of certain breast cancer treatments, maintaining healthy levels of vitamin D is especially important for the people she treats. Hormone therapies used to treat breast cancer, particularly the class of drugs called aromatase inhibitors, can reduce bone density and make fractures more common.

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Based on what we know, should people take vitamin D supplements to reduce cancer risk?

“It would be great if you could go down to the pharmacy and grab a bottle of vitamin D, and then you would never have to worry about cancer again,” Dr. Saltz says. “But of course it’s not that simple.”

Right now, the Institute of Medicine doesn’t find enough evidence to recommend vitamin D as a way to prevent cancer, he notes. (The IOM provides evidence-based research and recommendations for public health and science policy.) “But it does say that vitamin D is important for bone health, and we very much support that for people whose levels are found to be low,” he adds.

In addition, taking vitamin D at very high levels can result in digestive and kidney problems.

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What else can people do to reduce their cancer risk?

If people are concerned about their risk of colorectal cancer, there are many measures they can take, Dr. Saltz says. “We know that people who eat a healthy diet that’s low in refined carbohydrates and sugar and high in whole grains, vegetables, and seafood have a decreased risk of colon cancer. Data also suggest that high consumption of tree nuts — but not peanuts — is associated with a lower risk of recurrence after surgery for colon cancer. In addition, there’s also evidence that drinking coffee is correlated with decreased risk for colon cancer. I was happy to hear that.”

Dr. Fornier emphasizes the importance of regular exercise as well. “We are learning more and more about the importance of exercise, not just for general health but for bone health and mental health in particular,” she says. “A bottle of vitamins cannot substitute for a healthy lifestyle.”

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Commenting is disabled for this blog post.

I wish researcher would look at the correlation of injuring your breasts and years later developing breast cancer. It happened to me.

Maria, we understand your concern about a possible link between injury and developing breast cancer. We consulted with Memorial Sloan Kettering medical oncologist Larry Norton, who comments:

“This has been extensively studied and there is no causal relationship between trauma and breast cancer. Yes, coincidentally a bump to the breast has called attention to a malignant lump in the breast, but that doesn’t mean the injury caused the cancer.”

Wonder if higher levels of vitamin D is recommended for one diagnosed with LCIS (me) and for one diagnosed with Crohn’s disease ( my son )

Dear Debra, you should discuss this with your doctor, but as stated in this story, there is not enough evidence to recommend vitamin D for prevention of breast cancer or to prevent recurrence. However, if your vitamin D levels are low, you may want to consider changing your diet or taking supplements. Your son should discuss supplementation with his healthcare team. Thank you for your comment, and best wishes to both of you.

What do doctors consider "very high levels" when it comes to taking Vitamin D supplements?

How much is too much vitamin d

I've had surgery twice at Sloan K. after being diagnosed with breast c. Prior to, I'd been told that I had a Vit. D deficiency. I take 1000 Vit. D3 daily now, Praying that it will help with prevention as well as Letrozole. Question: Does Vit. D have to be taken with calcium supplements? I have a severe milk allergy, so certainly not getting my share of calcium. I'm trying!

Dear Marilyn, we’re sorry to hear about your cancer history. We recommend that you discuss this with a healthcare provider, but in general, although vitamin D is important for helping the body to absorb calcium, calcium is not needed to help absorb vitamin D. Although the two are often combined into one supplement, it’s not necessary to take them at the same time. Thank you for your comment and best wishes to you.

I believe vitamin K2 is vital for helping to plugging calcium in your blood into your bones. Do you have any research on this?

Dear Alice, we recommend that before taking any herbs or supplements, you discuss it with a doctor who is familiar with your medical history and any drugs you are currently taking. To provide some general information, in this study, which was not done at MSK, the authors wrote, “Animal and human studies suggest that optimal concentrations of both vitamin D and vitamin K are beneficial for bone and cardiovascular health as supported by genetic, molecular, cellular, and human studies”

Vitamin K2 can come from food sources or be synthetically produced. Natto, made from Japanese fermented soybeans, is rich in vitamin K2. You can learn more about nattokinase in our About Herbs database. It’s important to note that people who are also taking warfarin (Coumadin), a type of blood thinner, should be cautious about this supplement, because it can interfere with the drug.
Thank you for your comment and best wishes to you.

My thyroid surgeon at MSKCC said I should take 2,000 IU of vitamin D per day. I am also a long term breast cancer survivor being followed at MSKCC.