- Qing Hao
- Sweet sagewort
- Sweet wormwood
- Annual wormwood
For Patients & Caregivers
How It Works
Artemisia has been shown to be effective in the treatment of malaria.
Artemisia annua is an herb traditionally used in Chinese medicine to treat fever, inflammation, and malaria. A compound in artemisia was shown to be effective in treating malaria in a clinical trial. Another case study showed that artemisia was effective in treating chronic bladder infection. Other studies suggest it may be helpful for osteoarthritis. Artemisia prevented cancer cells from dividing in laboratory studies but clinical trials have not been conducted to support this.
- To treat malaria Several clinical trials support this use. However, recurrence is more likely than with conventional antimalarial treatment.
- To reduce inflammation Preliminary studies suggest that artemisia may be helpful for hip or knee osteoarthritis.
- To treat cancer Laboratory studies have shown some effect. Human data are lacking.
Do Not Take If
- Hepatitis: In a 52-year-old man following consumption of an herbal supplement containing artemisinin.
- Skin rash: With topical use of artemisia.
- Hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and dizziness: Possibly related to oral artesunate, an active artemisia compound, among several advanced breast cancer patients in a safety trial. The study drug was otherwise largely well tolerated among patients.
For Healthcare Professionals
Commonly known as wormwood or sweet sagewort, Artemisia annua has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for reducing fevers, inflammation, headaches, bleeding and for treating malaria.
In vitro studies indicate that artemisinin, the active principle of A. annua, may be an effective treatment for protozoal infections including leishmaniasis (8), Chagas’ disease, and African sleeping sickness (9). Systematic reviews of artemisinin show that it is as effective as quinine in treating both uncomplicated and severe malaria (4) (5). However, increased risk of relapse may limit its uses (6) (7). It is also unclear whether A. annua is effective against strains of malaria that are resistant to quinine.
In one RCT, a low-dose formulation of artemisia produced clinically relevant pain reductions in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (3). A subsesquent open-label continuation study demonstrated long-term safety with maintained improvements at 6 months (10).
A. annua has also been investigated for its anticancer properties. Terpenoids and flavonoids isolated from the herb exert cytotoxic effects in several human tumor cell lines (1) (18) (19) (20). The constituents artemisinin and artesunate have been studied as anticancer treatments (25) (26). In a recent safety study in advanced breast cancer patients, oral artesunate as add-on therapy was well tolerated, although it was determined that regular audiological assessments should be included to monitor for ototoxicity (13) (21).
Mechanism of Action
Artemisinin, the active constituent of A. annua, exerts antimalarial effects by free radicals formed via cleavage of the endoperoxide bond in its structure, which are responsible for eradicating the Plasmodium species (23).
Artemisinin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of Leishmani donovani promastigotes (8). It has antiproliferative effects on medullary thyroid carcinoma cells (2), and induces apoptosis in a lung cancer cell line by modulating p38 and calcium signaling (14). In another study, it significantly inhibited cell growth and proliferation, and caused G1 cell-cycle arrest in neuroblastoma cell lines (25). Dihydroartemisinin, a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, demonstrates anti-inflammatory activity by attenuating COX-2 production via downregulation of serine/threonine kinase (AKT) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (24). Recent findings suggest that dihydroartemisinin-triggered apoptosis in colorectal cells occurs through the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway (26).
- Hepatitis: In a 52-year-old man following consumption of an herbal supplement containing artemisinin (17).
- Dermatitis: With topical use of artemisia (11).
- Ototoxicity and vertigo: Possibly related to oral artesunate, an active artemisia compound, among several advanced breast cancer patients in a safety trial (13) (21). The study drug was otherwise largely well tolerated among patients.