For Patients & Caregivers
Broccoli sprouts contain compounds that have anticancer effects. Further studies are warranted.
Broccoli sprouts are young broccoli plants. Lab studies show they contain compounds that have anticancer activities. Preliminary studies are being conducted to see whether there may also be some benefit in humans. Other studies suggest that broccoli sprouts can help eliminate environmental toxins and protect against some viruses and bacterial infections. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects.
- Cancer Prevention
Studies done in the lab and in animals show that broccoli sprouts contain sulforaphane, which has anticancer properties. In a study conducted in humans, broccoli sprouts were found to play a role in eliminating cancer-causing chemicals. Large-scale studies are needed to confirm such effects.
- Cancer Treatment
Broccoli sprouts appear to have anticancer effects in the lab. Preliminary studies are being conducted to see whether there may also be some benefit in humans.
- Bacterial Infections
Small studies in humans suggest that broccoli sprouts may help reduce inflammation of the stomach caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.
For Healthcare Professionals
Broccoli sprouts are young broccoli plants that are rich in glucoraphanin, a precursor of sulforaphane. In vitro studies suggest that sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate, has anticancer effects against prostate (1), breast (2) (3), and urinary cancers (4). It may also protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation (5). Preliminary studies to further evaluate these effects are currently being conducted in humans.
Consumption of broccoli sprouts was found to help reduce Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis (6) (7), and protect against oxidative stress-induced upper airway disease (8) and DNA damage (9). Glucoraphanin extracted from broccoli sprouts may play a role in the excretion of environmental toxicants (10). Supplementation with broccoli sprouts may enhance antiviral responses (14). Further research is warranted.
A broccoli sprout extract was shown to be safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers (11). In patients with prior melanoma, a preliminary study of oral broccoli sprout extract also determined it was well tolerated (15), but efficacy studies to evaluate its chemopreventive potential are needed.
Sulforaphane, the isothiocyanate present in broccoli sprouts, has been shown to block the initiation stage in carcinogenesis by inhibiting enzymes that convert procarcinogens to carcinogens, and inducing phase 2 enzymes that metabolize carcinogens to facilitate excretion. Induction of phase 2 enzymes occurs through antioxidant response element-driven gene expression, with targets including NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, heme oxygenase 1, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase regulated by nuclear factor E2 related factor (13). Sulforaphane also suppresses cancer development through various molecular targets. It induces G2/M cell cycle arrest via cyclin-dependent kinases and triggers dose-dependent apoptosis. Sulforaphane also inhibits histone deacetylase by its metabolites in vitro (13).
In a small study, broccoli sprout homogenates enhanced antiviral defense responses via peripheral blood NK cell activation and increased granzyme B production (14).