Broccoli Sprouts

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Broccoli Sprouts

For Patients & Caregivers

Tell your healthcare providers about any dietary supplements you’re taking, such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, and natural or home remedies. This will help them manage your care and keep you safe.


What is it?

Broccoli sprouts are young broccoli plants that have many nutrients. Broccoli sprout supplements come as tablets, capsules, and powder.

What is it used for?

Broccoli sprouts are used to:

  • Prevent cancer
  • Fight infection caused by Helicobacter pylori, a type of bacteria that infects your stomach
  • Stomach ulcers

It’s generally safe to include broccoli sprouts in your diet. They can be eaten raw or cooked. Talk with your healthcare providers before taking them as supplements. Supplements are stronger than the sprouts you would add to your food.

Supplements can also interact with some medications and affect how they work. For more information, read the “What else do I need to know?” section below.

What are the side effects?

There aren’t any side effects of taking broccoli sprouts.

What else do I need to know?
  • Talk to your healthcare provider if you have advanced pancreatic cancer. Using high-dose broccoli sprout supplements while on chemotherapy can increase nausea (feeling of throwing up) and vomiting (throwing up).
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For Healthcare Professionals

Scientific Name
Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck
Clinical Summary

Broccoli sprouts are young broccoli plants that have high amounts of glucoraphanin, a precursor of sulforaphane. Sulforaphane is a sulfur-rich compound known to benefit human health.

Consumption of broccoli sprouts was found to help reduce Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis (6) (7), but not effective in eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection (25), and a sulforaphane combined with standard triple therapy (proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin) neither improved the eradication rate nor reduced the occurrence of adverse events (20). Additional studies reported intake of sprouts to protect against oxidative stress-induced upper airway disease (8) and DNA damage (9), and long-term consumption to reduce levels of inflammatory markers in overweight subjects (18). Supplementation with sprouts also enhanced antiviral responses (14), and glucoraphanin (10) as well as a broccoli sprout beverage (21) may aid the excretion of environmental pollutants.

In oncology settings, sulforaphane demonstrated anticancer effects against prostate (1), breast (2) (3) (16), and urinary cancer cells (4), and may protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation (5). In murine models, a prenatal/maternal broccoli sprouts diet appeared to offer greater preventive effects on breast cancer development (22) compared with postnatal early-life treatment (17).

In patients with prior melanoma, a broccoli sprout extract was found to be well tolerated (15). A feasibility study involving advanced pancreatic cancer patients found some benefits with broccoli sprout supplementation but noted difficulty in capsule intake by some participants, and to be associated with increased digestive symptoms (19). In addition, a broccoli sprout extract was found to affect changes in gene expression, but not prostate cancer biomarkers in men undergoing prostate biopsy (23). Larger studies are needed to determine the chemopreventive potential of broccoli sprouts, but challenges include selection of the source, placebo, dose as well as standardization of the formulation of the intervention material (26).

Purported Uses
  • Cancer prevention
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Stomach ulcers
Mechanism of Action

Sulforaphane may block the initiation stage in carcinogenesis by inhibiting enzymes that convert procarcinogens to carcinogens and inducing phase 2 enzymes that metabolize carcinogens to facilitate excretion. Induction of phase 2 enzymes occurs through antioxidant response element-driven gene expression, with targets including NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, heme oxygenase 1, and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase regulated by nuclear factor E2 related factor (13). Sulforaphane also suppresses cancer development through various molecular targets. It induces G2/M cell cycle arrest via cyclin-dependent kinases and triggers dose-dependent apoptosis and inhibits histone deacetylase by its metabolites in vitro (13). In a triple-negative breast cancer animal model, sulforaphane protection against cancer stem-like cell proliferation was attributed to suppression of the Cripto-mediated pathway and/or the Cripto/Alk4 protein complex (16).

In a small human study, broccoli sprout homogenates enhanced antiviral defense responses via peripheral blood NK cell activation and increased granzyme B production (14).

Adverse Reactions
  • Generally well tolerated (11) (15).
  • Digestive problems, nausea, and vomiting were observed in a feasibility study of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (19).
Herb-Drug Interactions
  • A meta-analysis showed that consumption of cruciferous vegetables has a significant effect on CYP1A2 and glutathione S-transferase-alpha (GST-α), increasing the activities of these enzymes by 20-40% and 15-35%, respectively (24). It is not known if broccoli sprouts would have similar effects.
References
  1. Abdulah R, Faried A, Kobayashi K, et al. Selenium enrichment of broccoli sprout extract increases chemosensitivity and apoptosis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:414.
  2. Li Y, Zhang T, Korkaya H, et al. Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16(9):2580-2590.
  3. Fahey JW, Haristoy X, Dolan PM, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. May 28 2002;99(11):7610-7615.
  4. Munday R, Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Munday CM, et al. Inhibition of urinary bladder carcinogenesis by broccoli sprouts. Cancer Res. Mar 1 2008;68(5):1593-1600.
  5. Talalay P, Fahey JW, Healy ZR, et al. Sulforaphane mobilizes cellular defenses that protect skin against damage by UV radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Oct 30 2007;104(44):17500-17505.
  6. Moon JK, Kim JR, Ahn YJ, Shibamoto T. Analysis and anti-Helicobacter activity of sulforaphane and related compounds present in broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L.) sprouts. J Agric Food Chem. Jun 9 2010;58(11):6672-6677.
  7. Yanaka A, Fahey JW, Fukumoto A, et al. Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans.Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). Apr 2009;2(4):353-360.
  8. Riedl MA, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Oral sulforaphane increases Phase II antioxidant enzymes in the human upper airway. Clin Immunol. 2009;130(3):244-251.
  9. Hoelzl C, Glatt H, Meinl W, et al. Consumption of Brussels sprouts protects peripheral human lymphocytes against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and oxidative DNA-damage: results of a controlled human intervention trial. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(3):330-341.
  10. Kensler TW, Chen JG, Egner PA, et al. Effects of glucosinolate-rich broccoli sprouts on urinary levels of aflatoxin-DNA adducts and phenanthrene tetraols in a randomized clinical trial in He Zuo township, Qidong, People’s Republic of China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(11 Pt 1):2605-2613.
  11. Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Dinkova-Kostova AT, et al. Safety, tolerance, and metabolism of broccoli sprout glucosinolates and isothiocyanates: a clinical phase I study. Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(1):53-62.
  12. Park EJ, Pezzuto JM. Botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2002;21(3-4):231-255.
  13. Clarke JD, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane. Cancer Lett. 2008;269(2):291-304.
  14. Muller L, Meyer M, Bauer RN, et al. Effect of Broccoli Sprouts and Live Attenuated Influenza Virus on Peripheral Blood Natural Killer Cells: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0147742.
  15. Tahata S, Singh SV, Lin Y, et al. Evaluation of biodistribution of sulforaphane after administration of oral broccoli sprout extract in melanoma patients with multiple atypical nevi. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2018 Jul;11(7):429-438.
  16. Castro NP, Rangel MC, Merchant AS, et al. Sulforaphane Suppresses the Growth of Triple-negative Breast Cancer Stem-like Cells In vitro and In vivo. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). Mar 2019;12(3):147-158.
  17. Li Y, Buckhaults P, Li S, et al. Temporal Efficacy of a Sulforaphane-Based Broccoli Sprout Diet in Prevention of Breast Cancer through Modulation of Epigenetic Mechanisms. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). Aug 2018;11(8):451-464.
  18. Lopez-Chillon MT, Carazo-Diaz C, Prieto-Merino D, et al. Effects of long-term consumption of broccoli sprouts on inflammatory markers in overweight subjects. Clin Nutr. Apr 2019;38(2):745-752.
  19. Lozanovski VJ, Polychronidis G, Gross W, et al. Broccoli sprout supplementation in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is difficult despite positive effects-results from the POUDER pilot study. Invest New Drugs. 2020 Jun;38(3):776-784
  20. Chang YW, Park YM, Oh CH, et al. Effects of probiotics or broccoli supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication with standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy. Korean J Intern Med. 2020 May;35(3):574-581.
  21. Chen JG, Johnson J, Egner P, et al. Dose-dependent detoxication of the airborne pollutant benzene in a randomized trial of broccoli sprout beverage in Qidong, China. J Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Sep 1;110(3):675-684.
  22. Li S, Chen M, Wu H, Li Y, Tollefsbol TO. Maternal Epigenetic Regulation Contributes to Prevention of Estrogen Receptor-negative Mammary Cancer with Broccoli Sprout Consumption. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2020 May;13(5):449-462.
  23. Zhang Z, Garzotto M, Davis EW 2nd, et al. Sulforaphane Bioavailability and Chemopreventive Activity in Men Presenting for Biopsy of the Prostate Gland: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutr Cancer. 2020;72(1):74-87.
  24. Eagles SK, Gross AS, McLachlan AJ. The Effects of Cruciferous Vegetable-Enriched Diets on Drug Metabolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Dietary Intervention Trials in Humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Aug;108(2):212-227.
  25. Ullah H, Di Minno A, Santarcangelo C, et al. Vegetable Extracts and Nutrients Useful in the Recovery from Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review on Clinical Trials. Molecules. 2021 Apr 14;26(8):2272.
  26. Fahey JW, Kensler TW. The Challenges of Designing and Implementing Clinical Trials With Broccoli Sprouts… and Turning Evidence Into Public Health Action. Front Nutr. 2021 Apr 29;8:648788.
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