Chia

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Chia

Common Names

  • Chia
  • Salba
  • Salba-chia

For Patients & Caregivers

How It Works

Chia may have some nutritional benefits, but evidence on specific clinical benefits is very limited.

The seeds of the chia plant are rich in fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alpha-linolenic acid, a type of essential fatty acid. They are thought to be useful for reducing risk of heart disease and as an aid in weight management. Data from a few small studies suggest that chia seeds may be helpful for patients with diabetes or help contribute to feelings of fullness, but chia did not appear to affect weight loss. In addition, reviews of the current evidence do not adequately support these claims. Larger well-designed trials are needed.

Purported Uses
  • Heart health
    Most studies of chia’s effects on heart disease risk have not shown meaningful results.
  • Weight loss
    Results from a clinical trial showed that chia did not affect weight loss. More studies are needed.
Patient Warnings

Never consume dry chia seeds on their own, as they can absorb up to 27 times their weight in water. This may cause them to expand and become lodged in the throat. Chia seeds should be prepared or mixed with enough liquid to allow them to expand before eating.

Do Not Take If
  • You are taking blood pressure medications: Chia seeds may increase the adverse effects of these drugs.
  • You have swallowing problems: Use chia seeds with caution, and never use dry chia seeds alone which may expand once in contact with a liquid, such as saliva or water.
  • You are allergen-sensitive: Use chia seeds with caution, as there have been case reports of allergic reactions.
Side Effects

Small studies suggest chia is well tolerated when properly used.

Case reports

Throat blockage: In a 39-year-old man who received emergency treatment to remove chia seeds that had expanded in his throat.

Allergic reaction: In a 54-year-old man with previous history of rhinitis and asthma. He experienced rapid facial swelling, rash, shortness of breath, and dizziness that required emergency treatment after a few days of eating chia seeds to lower cholesterol levels.

Allergic skin reaction: In a 46-year-old man with a history of other allergies. Eczema and itchy lesions on his hands occurred after starting to add chia seeds to his morning yogurt, and disappeared when he stopped eating them.

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For Healthcare Professionals

Scientific Name
Salvia hispanica
Clinical Summary

The chia plant is native to Central and South America and the seeds it produces have been consumed as food since ancient times. They are high in dietary fiber, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alpha-linolenic acid, and are marketed as dietary supplements for cardiovascular health and weight loss. The seeds can expand and turn into a gel-like substance when mixed with water, and are often found in a variety of packaged goods touted as functional foods or superfoods.

Various laboratory analyses suggest that chia constituents have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antithrombotic activities (8). In vivo experiments suggest that dietary consumption of chia seeds may improve animal intestinal health (21). In animal studies, chia prevented onset of dyslipidemia (1) (6), reversed insulin resistance (1) (9) (10), and conferred cardio- and hepatoprotective effects (7) (22). However, it did not reduce body weight gain or abdominal fat accumulation (10), or have preventive effects in animal tumor models (23).

In preliminary clinical studies, chia did not benefit overweight adults (3), but appeared to improve cardiovascular and obesity-related risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes (4) (24). Other small studies suggest chia supplementation may increase short-term satiety (25), perhaps to a greater extent than flax  (26), and has positive effects on blood glucose levels (11) (12). Chia flour supplementation was found to reduce blood pressure in both treated and untreated hypertensive subjects (13). However, a systematic review determined that most studies on chia for CVD risk factors did not demonstrate statistically significant results (14). In addition, a meta-analysis of trials evaluating chia for various metabolic parameters determined that results were largely nonsignificant and modest at best for a few subgroup measures, while citing low quality of evidence (27).

More research is needed to elucidate and validate health benefits with chia supplementation. Rare adverse or allergic reactions have been reported.

Purported Uses
  • Cardiovascular health
  • Weight loss
Mechanism of Action

Active compounds in chia include essential fatty acids, flavonols, and phenolic compounds, some of which have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antithrombotic activities (8) (17). Protein content of chia is higher than that of most traditional grains (18). The main protein fractions extracted from chia seed flour were globulins, with globulin peptides demonstrating homology to sesame proteins, and essential amino acids, especially methionine and cysteine (19).

In animal models, chia seed reversed impaired insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity, glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate and GLUT-4 protein levels as well as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia (9).

Decreases in postprandial glycemia with chia supplementation may explain improvements in blood pressure, coagulation, and inflammatory markers observed in patients with type II diabetes (4) (11).

IgE-mediated anaphylaxis by chia seeds appeared to be caused by water- and lipo-soluble allergens including a lectin, an elongation factor, and an 11S globulin (18).

Warnings

Never consume dry chia seeds on their own, as they can absorb up to 27 times their weight in water. This may cause them to expand and become lodged in the esophagus. Chia seeds should be prepared or mixed with sufficient amounts of liquid to allow them to expand before consumption (20).

Contraindications

Patients with any history of swallowing problems should use chia seeds with caution due to absorption interactions with liquid, causing them to expand (20).

Adverse Reactions

Small studies suggest chia is well tolerated when properly used (4).

Case reports

Blocked esophagus: In a 39-year-old man who received emergency treatment to remove chia seeds from the esophagus. The cause of the blockage was the ingestion of no more than 1 tablespoon of dry chia seeds followed by a glass of water (20).

Anaphylactic reaction: In a 54-year-old man with previous diagnosis of rhinitis and asthma, after a few days of consuming chia seeds to lower cholesterol levels. Symptoms included pruritus in his mouth, generalized urticaria, facial angioedema, shortness of breath, and dizziness, requiring emergency treatment (18).

IgE-mediated allergic dermatitis: In a 46-year-old man with a history of allergic rhinitis and sensitization to mites/pollens. The appearance of eczema and itchy lesions on his hands coincided with the addition of chia seeds in his daily morning yogurt, and disappeared spontaneously when he stopped eating them (28).

Herb-Drug Interactions
  • Antihypertensive medications: Chia supplementation may have additive effects, as the use of chia flour reduced blood pressure in both treated and untreated hypertensive individuals (13) .
Herb Lab Interactions
  • High amounts of n-3 PUFAs could lead to altered bleeding and clotting times (5) .
  • May reduce blood sugar levels (11) (12).
References
  1. Chicco AG, D’Alessandro ME, Hein GJ, et al. Dietary chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid improves adiposity and normalises hypertriacylglycerolaemia and insulin resistance in dyslipaemic rats. Br J Nutr. Jan 2009;101(1):41-50.
  2. Espada CE, Berra MA, Martinez MJ, et al. Effect of Chia oil (Salvia Hispanica) rich in omega-3 fatty acids on the eicosanoid release, apoptosis and T-lymphocyte tumor infiltration in a murine mammary gland adenocarcinoma. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. Jul 2007;77(1):21-28.
  3. Nieman DC, Cayea EJ, Austin MD, et al. Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults. Nutr Res. Jun 2009;29(6):414-418.
  4. Vuksan V, Whitham D, Sievenpiper JL, et al. Supplementation of conventional therapy with the novel grain Salba (Salvia hispanica L.) improves major and emerging cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. Nov 2007;30(11):2804-2810.
  5. Schmidt EB, Nielsen LK, Pedersen JO, et al. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipids, platelet function, coagulation, fibrinolysis and monocyte chemotaxis in patients with hypertension.Clin Chim Acta. Jul 1990;189(1):25-32.
  6. Chicco AG, D’Alessandro ME, Hein GJ, Oliva ME, Lombardo YB. Dietary chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid improves adiposity and normalises hypertriacylglycerolaemia and insulin resistance in dyslipaemic rats. Br J Nutr. 2009 Jan;101(1):41-50.
  7. Poudyal H, Panchal SK, Waanders J, Ward L, Brown L. Lipid redistribution by á-linolenic acid-rich chia seed inhibits stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and induces cardiac and hepatic protection in diet-induced obese rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Feb;23(2):153-62.
  8. Mohd Ali N, Yeap SK, Ho WY, et al. The promising future of chia, Salvia hispanica L. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:171956.
  9. Oliva ME, Ferreira MR, Chicco A, et al. Dietary Salba (Salvia hispanica L) seed rich in alpha-linolenic acid improves adipose tissue dysfunction and the altered skeletal muscle glucose and lipid metabolism in dyslipidemic insulin-resistant rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. Oct 2013;89(5):279-289.
  10. Marineli Rda S, Moura CS, Moraes EA, et al. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) enhances HSP, PGC-1alpha expressions and improves glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. Nutrition. May 2015;31(5):740-748.
  11. Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Dias AG, et al. Reduction in postprandial glucose excursion and prolongation of satiety: possible explanation of the long-term effects of whole grain Salba (Salvia Hispanica L.). Eur J Clin Nutr. Apr 2010;64(4):436-438.
  12. Ho H, Lee AS, Jovanovski E, et al. Effect of whole and ground Salba seeds (Salvia Hispanica L.) on postprandial glycemia in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled, dose-response trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. Jul 2013;67(7):786-788.
  13. Toscano LT, da Silva CS, Toscano LT, et al. Chia flour supplementation reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. Dec 2014;69(4):392-398.
  14. De Souza Ferreira C, De Sousa Fomes LF, Da Silva GE, et al. Effect of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) consumption on cardiovascular risk factors in humans: A systematic review. Nutr Hosp. 2015;32(n05):1909-1918.
  15. Jeong SK, Park HJ, Park BD, et al. Effectiveness of topical chia seed oil on pruritus of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and healthy volunteers. Ann Dermatol. May 2010;22(2):143-148.
  16. Valenzuela R, Bascunan K, Chamorro R, et al. Modification of docosahexaenoic acid composition of milk from nursing women who received alpha linolenic acid from chia oil during gestation and nursing. Nutrients. Aug 2015;7(8):6405-6424.
  17. Martinez-Cruz O, Paredes-Lopez O. Phytochemical profile and nutraceutical potential of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A. Jun 13 2014;1346:43-48.
  18. Garcia Jimenez S, Pastor Vargas C, de las Heras M, et al. Allergen characterization of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica), a new allergenic food. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2015;25(1):55-56.
  19. Sandoval-Oliveros MR, Paredes-Lopez O. Isolation and characterization of proteins from chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.). J Agric Food Chem. Jan 9 2013;61(1):193-201.
  20. Rawl R, American College of Gastroenterology AB. Abstract Highlights | Watch It Grow: Esophageal Impaction With Chia Seeds (Presentation P643).
  21. Pereira da Silva B, Kolba N, Stampini Duarte Martino H, et al. Soluble Extracts from Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Affect Brush Border Membrane Functionality, Morphology and Intestinal Bacterial Populations In Vivo (Gallus gallus). Nutrients. Oct 14 2019;11(10).
  22. Fernandez-Martinez E, Lira-Islas IG, Carino-Cortes R, et al. Dietary chia seeds (Salvia hispanica) improve acute dyslipidemia and steatohepatitis in rats. J Food Biochem. Sep 2019;43(9):e12986.
  23. Carnier M, Silva FP, Miranda DA, et al. Diet Supplemented with Chia Flour did not Modified the Inflammatory Process and Tumor Development in Wistar Rats Inoculated with Walker 256 Cells. Nutr Cancer. Oct 2018;70(7):1007-1016.
  24. Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Brissette C, et al. Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in the treatment of overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Feb 2017;27(2):138-146.
  25. Ayaz A, Akyol A, Inan-Eroglu E, et al. Chia seed (Salvia Hispanica L.) added yogurt reduces short-term food intake and increases satiety: randomised controlled trial. Nutr Res Pract. Oct 2017;11(5):412-418.
  26. Vuksan V, Choleva L, Jovanovski E, et al. Comparison of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety in healthy individuals: a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Eur J Clin Nutr. Feb 2017;71(2):234-238.
  27. Teoh SL, Lai NM, Vanichkulpitak P, et al. Clinical evidence on dietary supplementation with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. Apr 1 2018;76(4):219-242.
  28. Tomas-Perez M, Entrala A, Bartolome B, et al. Dermatitis Caused by Ingestion of Chia Seeds. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2018;28(1):46-47.
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