Purported Benefits, Side Effects & More


Purported Benefits, Side Effects & More

Common Names

  • Mossberry
  • Sassamanash
  • Bounceberry

For Patients & Caregivers

Tell your healthcare providers about any dietary supplements you’re taking, such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, and natural or home remedies. This will help them manage your care and keep you safe.

What is it?

Cranberry juice or extracts may be helpful for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in limited populations, but there is not enough evidence to recommend it for UTI prevention.

Cranberries contain compounds called proanthocyanidins that may prevent bacteria from attaching to the bladder wall, which could cause UTIs. Human studies suggest possible benefit in some populations including prostate cancer patients, but overall evidence is conflicting. Cranberry may also prevent bacteria from attaching to the stomach lining and areas in the mouth. Although lab studies suggest activity against several types of cancer cells, these properties have yet to be evaluated in human studies.

In patients who are prone to kidney stones, regular use of cranberry should be avoided as it contains oxalates, a compound found in the most common form of kidney stones.

What are the potential uses and benefits?
  • Urinary tract infections

    The evidence for prevention or treatment of UTIs is mixed.
  • Anticancer effects

    Lab studies suggest cranberry juice extract and isolated compounds may inhibit various types of cancer cells, but these observations have not been studied in humans.
  • Stomach ulcers

    Studies suggest cranberry juice may help prevent or suppress H. pylori infection.
  • Atherosclerosis

    Evidence on whether cranberry juice can help reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors are limited and unclear.
  • Gum disease/cavities

    Lab studies suggest cranberry juice prevents bacteria from attaching, thereby slowing plaque formation, but additional studies are needed.
What are the side effects?
  • Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea with large amounts of cranberry juice (3 cups daily)

Case reports

  • Increased International Normalized Ratio (INR) and/or bleeding: Several cases due to suspected interactions between cranberry juice and warfarin.
  • Internal hemorrhage resulting in death: In 2 patients, following concurrent use of warfarin and cranberry juice.
What else do I need to know?

Do Not Take if:

  • You are taking tacrolimus: Serum levels of tacrolimus dropped when taken with cranberry extract. Levels returned to the desired range after stopping cranberry intake.
  • You are taking warfarin: Because data is mixed on whether cranberry juice may increase bleeding, usage of cranberry juice should be monitored by a healthcare professional, if not avoided. Case reports of bleeding and death in 2 elderly patients who used cranberry juice and warfarin have occurred.
  • You are taking CYP450 substrate drugs: Cranberry may increase blood levels of these drugs or their adverse effects.
  • You are taking UGT substrate drugs: Cranberry may increase the risk of side effects for these drugs.
  • You have a history of kidney stones: Cranberry contains high concentrations of oxalates, a component common to kidney stones.

For Healthcare Professionals

Scientific Name
Vaccinium macrocarpon
Clinical Summary

Cranberry is an evergreen shrub that is grown in North America and Europe. The processed fruit and juice, both rich in vitamin C, are widely consumed as food. The juice extract is marketed as a dietary supplement for urinary tract health and to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs). It has also been used for oral and gastrointestinal infections, cardiovascular diseases, and to protect against cancer. In preclinical studies, cranberry juice extracts and constituents exhibited antibacterial (1), antimicrobial (45), antifungal (46), anti-inflammatory (47), antioxidant (48), and antiadherence (49) properties.

Studies on whether cranberry products can prevent UTIs have been conducted in various populations, but results are mixed. Cranberry extracts can help prevent UTIs in adults (2) (3), children (4), prostate cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy (5) (50), and patients following urostomy (68). In women undergoing pelvic floor surgery, cranberry prophylaxis had no beneficial effects against UTIs, although UTI prevalence overall was lower than expected (72). A large double-blind study of older adults with high-baseline UTI risk showed benefit (51), but another similar study reported negative findings (52). A subsequent analysis revealed increased costs with no meaningful reduction in UTI rates in a geriatric nursing home environment (53). Studies of cranberry juice for recurrent UTIs have also been mixed, with one study finding no benefit among college-aged women (6), and another observing significant reductions in UTI relapse in women over age 50 (54). Cranberry was not as effective or cost-effective as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in preventing UTIs in premenopausal women, but patients were less likely to develop antibiotic-resistant bacteria (8) (55). In volunteers from different regions, anti-adhesion activity with cranberry powder was found to be dose-dependent (7). Overall, a systematic review determined that cranberry juice was more effective than capsules or tablets  (56), but despite some support for recurrent UTI prophylaxis (69), there is not enough evidence to recommend cranberry juice for UTI prevention (9) (70).

In other studies, cranberry juice inhibited adhesion of H. pylori to human gastric mucosa (18), and regular consumption may suppress H. pylori infection (19) (20), a major factor in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. When used with standard treatment, cranberry juice helped eradicate H. pylori (21). It potential to prevent plaque formation and gum disease as well may be due to its anticolonizing and antiadhesion properties (22) (23).

Preclinical studies suggest antiproliferative effects against prostate (10) (11) (12), liver (13), lung (57), neuroblastoma (58), breast (14), ovarian (15), gastric (59), colon (12) (16), esophageal (60), and oral (12) cancer cells with cranberry extracts and proanthocyanidins. In humans however, cranberry juice did not lower oxidative status, suggesting a lack of protective effect against cancer or heart disease (17).

Cranberry juice has high concentrations of oxalates, and should be avoided in patients at risk for kidney stones  (40) (73). Other data suggest it may be helpful in uncommon forms including struvite stones, which are associated with bladder infections (33) (62) (63).

Food Sources

Cranberry can be consumed as juice, sauce, or dried fruit.

Purported Uses and Benefits
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Cancer
  • Ulcers
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Gum disease
Mechanism of Action

The A-type linkages in cranberry proanthocyanidins (C-PACs) may enhance urinary bacterial antiadhesion activities to prevent UTIs (25) (26) (27) (28) (64). Similarly, bioactivity against C. albicans biofilm formation is due to anti-adherence properties and/or iron chelation (46). In susceptible populations, improved preventive effects with cranberry juice over capsules or tablets may be related to better hydration with liquid, and/or additive effects with additional compounds in juice not contained in supplements (56). Anti-adhesion properties were also demonstrated in other microenvironments. Cranberry prevented H. pylori-induced stomach ulcers by inhibiting bacterial adhesions in the stomach lining (18) (29), decreased adherence of oral streptococci strains to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (23) and glucan-coated hydroxyapatite, and impaired biofilm formation (22) (30) indicating it may slow dental plaque development and protect against plaque-related diseases. Cranberry also regulated aggressive human periodontitis fibroblast inflammatory responses via nuclear factor-kappaB and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) inhibition (47).

Additional studies have shown that C-PACs may play a role in enhancing host innate immunity. In a worm model, a standardized cranberry extract mediated host immune response via p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling, and heat shock factor 1 (45). Antiatherogenic effects of cranberry juice occur via reductions in serum glucose and apoB, and increases in serum and apoA-1 and paraoxonase, associated with stabilizing HDL (61).

Mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of cranberry extracts and C-PACs have also been investigated. A cranberry extract inhibited prostate cancer cell growth by decreasing cyclins, cyclin-dependant kinase expression (10) , and MMP activity (31). Dose-response inhibition of gastric cancer cells to cranberry is in part due to decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression and apoptotic induction (59). A proanthocyanidin isolate arrested ovarian cancer cell growth by inhibiting VEGF and generating ROS (15). C-PACs induced cell death in esophageal adenocarcinoma via microRNA modifications within cancer cells (60), and in human lung cancer cells, they altered gene expression, induced apoptosis, and modulated cell-cycle processes (57). In high-risk neuroblastoma cells, a purified C-PAC induced apoptosis and ROS generation, and encouraged cyclophosphamide retention with synergistic cytotoxic benefits (58).

Cranberry juice increases the risk of uric acid stone formation because of its acidifying effect and slowing of urate synthesis, thereby decreasing urinary pH (32) (33).

  • Cranberry products can increase urine oxalate excretion and may promote formation of the most common type of kidney stones (32) (33) (40). Its use should therefore be avoided in patients at increased risk for this condition (40) (73).
  • A Japanese case report describes the formation of precipitates in the stomach and esophagus of a patient with multiple system atrophy which was attributed to the use of a pH neutral enteral formula along with cranberry juice via nasogastric feeding (74).
Adverse Reactions

Ingesting large amounts of cranberry juice (3 cups daily) has been associated with gastrointestinal upset including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (66).

Case Reports

Recurrent stones: In a 47-year-old man with severe right renal colic and hematuria who took cranberry concentrate tablets twice daily over 6 months (40).

Increased INR: Several cases of increased International Normalized Ratio due to suspected interactions between warfarin and cranberry juice (36) (37).

Internal hemorrhage and subsequent death: In 2 patients with concurrent use of warfarin and cranberry juice (38) (39).

Herb-Drug Interactions

Tacrolimus: Concurrent use with cranberry extracts resulted in subtherapeutic serum levels of tacrolimus in a renal transplant patient (71). The levels returned to desired range following cessation of cranberry.

Cyclosporin: A randomized controlled trial has shown that 240 mL of cranberry juice had no clinically significant effect on the disposition of a 200 mg dose of cyclosporin (42).

Warfarin: Cranberry juice may potentiate warfarin-induced anticoagulation, but data are conflicting (34) (41) (65). Although consumption of cranberry juice in large quantities (1–2 L daily or supplements for >3–4 weeks) may alter warfarin effects, monitoring intake rather than total avoidance of cranberry juice by warfarin users in other cases may be warranted (67).

UGT (Uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase) substrates: Cranberry modulates UGT enzymes in vitro and can increase risk of side effects of drugs metabolized by them (35).

Cytochrome P450 substrates: Cranberry inhibits enteric CYP3A activities and may interfere with the absorption of substrate drugs (43). Cranberry inhibits CYP2C9 in vitro, but this activity was not observed in humans (44).

Herb Lab Interactions

Decreased urinary pH: Observed after drinking cranberry juice (32) (33).
Increased INR: Several cases due to suspected interactions between warfarin and cranberry juice (36) (37).

Dosage (OneMSK Only)
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  2. Stothers L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. Can J Urol. Jun 2002;9(3):1558-1562.
  3. Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, et al. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ. Jun 30 2001;322(7302):1571.
  4. Ferrara P, Romaniello L, Vitelli O, et al. Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial in children. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2009;43(5):369-372.
  5. Bonetta A, Di Pierro F. Enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of UTIs and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma. Cancer Manag Res. 2012;4:281-286.
  6. Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, et al. Cranberry juice fails to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection: results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. Jan 1 2011;52(1):23-30.
  7. Howell AB, Botto H, Combescure C, et al. Dosage effect on uropathogenic Escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:94.
  8. Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, et al. Cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women. Arch Int Med. Jul 25 2011;171(14):1270-1278.
  9. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:CD001321.
  10. Deziel B, MacPhee J, Patel K, et al. American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extract affects human prostate cancer cell growth via cell cycle arrest by modulating expression of cell cycle regulators. Food Funct. May 2012;3(5):556-564.
  11. Ferguson PJ, Kurowska E, Freeman DJ, et al. A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines. J Nutr. Jun 2004;134(6):1529-1535.
  12. Seeram NP, Adams LS, Hardy ML, et al. Total cranberry extract versus its phytochemical constituents: antiproliferative and synergistic effects against human tumor cell lines. J Agric Food Chem. May 5 2004;52(9):2512-2517.
  13. Sun J, Chu YF, Wu X, et al. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits. J Agric Food Chem. Dec 4 2002;50(25):7449-7454.
  14. Sun J, Hai Liu R. Cranberry phytochemical extracts induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett. Sep 8 2006;241(1):124-134.
  15. Kim KK, Singh AP, Singh RK, et al. Anti-angiogenic activity of cranberry proanthocyanidins and cytotoxic properties in ovarian cancer cells. Int J Oncol. Jan 2012;40(1):227-235.
  16. Parry J, Su L, Moore J, et al. Chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and antiproliferative activities of selected fruit seed flours. J Agric Food Chem. May 31 2006;54(11):3773-3778.
  17. Duthie SJ, Jenkinson AM, Crozier A, et al. The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur J Nutr. Mar 2006;45(2):113-122.
  18. Burger O, Ofek I, Tabak M, et al. A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. Dec 2000;29(4):295-301.
  19. Zhang L, Ma J, Pan K, et al. Efficacy of cranberry juice on Helicobacter pylori infection: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Helicobacter. Apr 2005;10(2):139-145.
  20. Gotteland M, Andrews M, Toledo M, et al. Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children. Nutrition. May 2008;24(5):421-426.
  21. Shmuely H, Yahav J, Samra Z, et al. Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Mol Nutr Food Res. Jun 2007;51(6):746-751.
  22. Weiss EI, Lev-Dor R, Kashamn Y, et al. Inhibiting interspecies coaggregation of plaque bacteria with a cranberry juice constituent [published erratam appear in J Am Dent Assoc 1999 Jan;130(1):36 and 1999 Mar;130(3):332]. J Am Dent Assoc. Dec 1998;129(12):1719-1723.
  23. Yamanaka A, Kimizuka R, Kato T, et al. Inhibitory effects of cranberry juice on attachment of oral streptococci and biofilm formation. Oral Microbiol Immunol. Jun 2004;19(3):150-154.
  24. Neto CC. Cranberry and its phytochemicals: a review of in vitro anticancer studies. J Nutr. Jan 2007;137(1 Suppl):186S-193S.
  25. Foo LY, Lu Y, Howell AB, et al. A-Type proanthocyanidin trimers from cranberry that inhibit adherence of uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. J Nat Prod. Sep 2000;63(9):1225-1228.
  26. Foo LY, Lu Y, Howell AB, et al. The structure of cranberry proanthocyanidins which inhibit adherence of uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in vitro. Phytochemistry. May 2000;54(2):173-181.
  27. Howell AB, Reed JD, Krueger CG, et al. A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins and uropathogenic bacterial anti-adhesion activity. Phytochemistry. Sep 2005;66(18):2281-2291.
  28. Howell AB, Vorsa N, Der Marderosian A, et al. Inhibition of the adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to uroepithelial-cell surfaces by proanthocyanidin extracts from cranberries. New Engl J Med. Oct 8 1998;339(15):1085-1086.
  29. Burger O, Weiss E, Sharon N, et al. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus by a high-molecular-weight constituent of cranberry juice. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2002;42(3 Suppl):279-284.
  30. Koo H, Nino de Guzman P, Schobel BD, et al. Influence of cranberry juice on glucan-mediated processes involved in Streptococcus mutans biofilm development. Caries Res. 2006;40(1):20-27.
  31. Deziel BA, Patel K, Neto C, et al. Proanthocyanidins from the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in human prostate cancer cells via alterations in multiple cellular signalling pathways. J Cell Biochem. Oct 15 2010;111(3):742-754.
  32. Gettman MT, Ogan K, Brinkley LJ, et al. Effect of cranberry juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol. Aug 2005;174(2):590-594; quiz 801.
  33. Kessler T, Jansen B, Hesse A. Effect of blackcurrant-, cranberry- and plum juice consumption on risk factors associated with kidney stone formation. Eur J Clin Nutr. Oct 2002;56(10):1020-1023.
  34. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Perloff ES, et al. Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies. Clin Pharm Ther. Jan 2006;79(1):125-133.
  35. Mohamed ME, Frye RF. Effects of herbal supplements on drug glucuronidation. Review of clinical, animal, and in vitro studies. Planta Med. Mar 2011;77(4):311-321.
  36. Hamann GL, Campbell JD, George CM. Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction. Ann Pharmacother. Mar 2011;45(3):e17.
  37. Roberts D, Flanagan P. Case report: Cranberry juice and warfarin. Home Healthc Nurse. Feb 2011;29(2):92-97.
  38. Griffiths AP, Beddall A, Pegler S. Fatal haemopericardium and gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to possible interaction of cranberry juice with warfarin. J R Soc Promot Health. Nov 2008;128(6):324-326.
  39. Suvarna R, Pirmohamed M, Henderson L. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. BMJ. Dec 20 2003;327(7429):1454.
  40. Terris MK, Issa MM, Tacker JR. Dietary supplementation with cranberry concentrate tablets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis. Urology. Jan 2001;57(1):26-29.
  41. Mohammed Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects. Brit J Pharmacol. Aug 2008;154(8):1691-1700.
  42. Grenier J, Fradette C, Morelli G, et al. Pomelo juice, but not cranberry juice, affects the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in humans. Clin Pharm Ther. Mar 2006;79(3):255-262.
  43. Kim E, Sy-Cordero A, Graf TN, et al. Isolation and identification of intestinal CYP3A inhibitors from cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) using human intestinal microsomes. Planta Med. Feb 2011;77(3):265-270.
  44. Ushijima K, Tsuruoka S, Tsuda H, et al. Cranberry juice suppressed the diclofenac metabolism by human liver microsomes, but not in healthy human subjects. Brit J Clin Pharmacol. Aug 2009;68(2):194-200.
  45. Dinh J, Angeloni JT, Pederson DB, et al. Cranberry extract standardized for proanthocyanidins promotes the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK pathway and HSF-1. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e103290.
  46. Rane HS, Bernardo SM, Howell AB, et al. Cranberry-derived proanthocyanidins prevent formation of Candida albicans biofilms in artificial urine through biofilm- and adherence-specific mechanisms. J Antimicrob Chemother. Feb 2014;69(2):428-436.
  47. Tipton DA, Babu JP, Dabbous M. Effects of cranberry components on human aggressive periodontitis gingival fibroblasts. J Periodontal Res. Aug 2013;48(4):433-442.
  48. Denis MC, Desjardins Y, Furtos A, et al. Prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the intestine by different cranberry phenolic fractions. Clin Sci (Lond). Feb 2015;128(3):197-212.
  49. Girardot M, Guerineau A, Boudesocque L, et al. Promising results of cranberry in the prevention of oral Candida biofilms. Pathog Dis. Apr 2014;70(3):432-439.
  50. Hamilton K, Bennett NC, Purdie G, et al. Standardized cranberry capsules for radiation cystitis in prostate cancer patients in New Zealand: a randomized double blinded, placebo controlled pilot study. Support Care Cancer. Jan 2015;23(1):95-102.
  51. Caljouw MA, van den Hout WB, Putter H, et al. Effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infections in vulnerable older persons: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in long-term care facilities. J Am Geriatr Soc. Jan 2014;62(1):103-110.
  52. Juthani-Mehta M, Van Ness PH, Bianco L, et al. Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria Among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016 Nov 8;316(18):1879-1887. 
  53. van den Hout WB, Caljouw MA, Putter H, et al. Cost-effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infection in long-term care facilities: economic evaluation with a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. Jan 2014;62(1):111-116.
  54. Takahashi S, Hamasuna R, Yasuda M, et al. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the preventive effect of cranberry juice (UR65) for patients with recurrent urinary tract infection. J Infect Chemother. Feb 2013;19(1):112-117.
  55. Bosmans JE, Beerepoot MA, Prins JM, et al. Cost-effectiveness of cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections in premenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e91939.
  56. Wang CH, Fang CC, Chen NC, et al. Cranberry-containing products for prevention of urinary tract infections in susceptible populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. Jul 9 2012;172(13):988-996.
  57. Kresty LA, Howell AB, Baird M. Cranberry proanthocyanidins mediate growth arrest of lung cancer cells through modulation of gene expression and rapid induction of apoptosis. Molecules. 2011;16(3):2375-2390.
  58. Singh AP, Lange TS, Kim KK, et al. Purified cranberry proanthocyanidines (PAC-1A) cause pro-apoptotic signaling, ROS generation, cyclophosphamide retention and cytotoxicity in high-risk neuroblastoma cells. Int J Oncol. Jan 2012;40(1):99-108.
  59. Liu M, Lin LQ, Song BB, et al. Cranberry phytochemical extract inhibits SGC-7901 cell growth and human tumor xenografts in Balb/c nu/nu mice. J Agric Food Chem. Jan 28 2009;57(2):762-768.
  60. Kresty LA, Clarke J, Ezell K, et al. MicroRNA alterations in Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines following cranberry extract treatment: Insights for chemoprevention. J Carcinog. 2011;10:34.
  61. Shidfar F, Heydari I, Hajimiresmaiel SJ, et al. The effects of cranberry juice on serum glucose, apoB, apoA-I, Lp(a), and Paraoxonase-1 activity in type 2 diabetic male patients. J Res Med Sci. Apr 2012;17(4):355-360.
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  64. Krueger CG, Reed JD, Feliciano RP, et al. Quantifying and characterizing proanthocyanidins in cranberries in relation to urinary tract health. Anal Bioanal Chem. May 2013;405(13):4385-4395.
  65. Ansell J, McDonough M, Zhao Y, et al. The absence of an interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice: a randomized, double-blind trial. J Clin Pharmacol. Jul 2009;49(7):824-830.
  66. Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Preslicka CW, et al. Daily cranberry juice for the prevention of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a randomized, controlled pilot study. J Urol. Oct 2008;180(4):1367-1372.
  67. Srinivas NR. Cranberry juice ingestion and clinical drug-drug interaction potentials; review of case studies and perspectives. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;16(2):289-303.
  68. Temiz Z, Cavdar I. The effects of training and the use of cranberry capsule in preventing urinary tract infections after urostomy. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2018 May;31:111-117.
  69. Ledda A, Belcaro G, Dugall M, Riva A, Togni S, Eggenhoffner R, Giacomelli L. Highly standardized cranberry extract supplementation (Anthocran®) as prophylaxis in young healthy subjects with recurrent urinary tract infections. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Jan;21(2):389-393.
  70. Gunnarsson AK, Gunningberg L, Larsson S, Jonsson KB. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial. Clin Interv Aging. 2017 Jan 13;12:137-143.
  71. Dave AA, Samuel J. Suspected Interaction of Cranberry Juice Extracts and Tacrolimus Serum Levels: A Case Report. Cureus. 2016 May 16;8(5):e610
  72. Mooren ES, Liefers WJ, de Leeuw JW. Cranberries after pelvic floor surgery for urinary tract infection prophylaxis: A randomized controlled trial. Neurourol Urodyn. Jun 2020;39(5):1543-1549.
  73. Redmond EJ, Murphy CF, Leonard J, et al. The influence of dietary supplementation with cranberry tablets on the urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis. World J Urol. Mar 2019;37(3):561-566.
  74. Goda K, Kenzaka T, Endo S, et al. [Curd Formation Resulting from a Reaction between Cranberry Juice and Enteral Formula]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. Jun 2020;47(6):1001-1003.
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