- May flower
For Patients & Caregivers
Hawthorn has been shown to improve heart function, shortness of breath, palpitations, and exercise tolerance in people with heart failure.
Hawthorn is a fruit extract that has been used as a digestive aid in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Scientists think that hawthorn extract causes dilation of the smooth muscle that lines coronary arteries, thereby increasing blood flow to the heart. Hawthorn is also thought to increase heart muscle contraction, heart rate, nerve transmission, and heart muscle irritability.
- To treat angina
Hawthorn showed benefit in patients with congestive heart failure.
- To treat atherosclerosis
Hawthorn showed benefit in patients with heart disease.
- To treat congestive heart failure
A few studies found that hawthorn extract improves cardiac function, shortness of breath, palpitations, and exercise tolerance in patients in NYHA functional class II, but no changes in electrocardiogram have been found. It is not known whether hawthorn is effective in patients with more serious heart disease.
- To lower high blood pressure
Data are conflicting. More research is needed.
- To relieve indigestion
Hawthorn has been used to relieve indigestion in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. But clinical studies are lacking.
For Healthcare Professionals
Derived from the flower, leaves, and fruits of the plant, Hawthorn has been used as an digestive aid in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Currently, it is used primarily to treat heart failure.
Hawthorn extract exhibited anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial properties in vitro (15). Clinical studies suggest effectiveness against congestive heart failure (10) (12) (14) and diabetes (13). But a hawthorn extract did not affect blood pressure in hypertensive individuals (18).
Frequently reported adverse events include nausea, sweating, and fatigue. Signs of overdose include hypotension and arrhythmias.
It is thought that hawthorn causes direct dilation of smooth muscle in coronary vessels thereby lowering their resistance and increasing blood flow. Hawthorn is also characterized as having positive inotropic effects leading to an increase in heart rate, nerve conductivity, and heart muscle irritability. The cardiac action of the flavonoids is thought to be via inhibition of the 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase (4).
- Digoxin: Hawthorn contains alkaloids that are structurally similar to digoxin and can interfere with its action (16).
- UGT (Uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase) substrates: Hawthorn modulates UGT enzymes in vitro and can increase the side effects of drugs metabolized by them (17).
- Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrates: Hawthone extract induces CYP3A4 by activating pregnane X receptor (PXR). This may increase the clearance of substrate drugs when used concomitantly (19).