- Gan cao
- Sweet root
For Patients & Caregivers
Tell your healthcare providers about any dietary supplements you’re taking, such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, and natural or home remedies. This will help them manage your care and keep you safe.
What is it?
What is it used for?
Licorice is used to treat:
- Gastrointestinal problems such as bloating, discomfort, nausea, and burping
- Peptic ulcers (sores in your stomach lining)
- Hepatitis (swelling of the liver)
- Bronchitis (when the tubes that carry air to your lungs are swollen)
- Inflammation (swelling)
Licorice also has other uses that haven’t been studied by doctors to see if they work.
It’s generally safe to use licorice in food and tea. However, talk with your healthcare providers before taking supplements or higher amounts of licorice. Herbal supplements are stronger than the herbs you would use in cooking.
Supplements can also interact with some medications and affect how they work. For more information, read the “What else do I need to know?” section below.
What are the side effects?
Side effects of licorice may include:
- High blood pressure
- Lethargy (lack of energy)
- Muscle pain
- Cardiac arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat)
- High sodium retention
- Low blood levels of potassium
- Reduced desire to have sex
- Decreased oil on your scalp
- Low blood platelet count
- Heavy licorice use can cause early pre-term births
What else do I need to know?
Do not take licorice if:
- You’re taking cardiac glycosides (medications used to treat heart failure and irregular heartbeat). Licorice may increase their effects which can be harmful.
- You’re taking diuretics (medications that make you urinate often). Licorice may lower your blood potassium level.
- You have hypertension (high blood pressure) and take medication to treat it. Licorice causes hypertension and may reduce the effectiveness of hypertension medication.
- You’re taking cortisol acetate. Licorice was reported to increase levels of cortisol in a patient with Addison’s disease (disease where your body doesn’t make enough cortisol) who took cortisone acetate. Higher levels of cortisol can lead to increased side effects.
For Healthcare Professionals
Derived from the root of the plant, licorice has been used as a flavoring and sweetening agent. It is also used in traditional Chinese medicine to detoxify, and enhance or balance the effects of other components in herbal formulations; as well as in Ayurveda as a tonic, expectorant and a demulcent. A number of compounds including glycyrrhizin are thought to be responsible for its biological effects.
Preclinical studies have shown that licorice has antibacterial (2) (27), antiviral (48), anticancer (3) (4) (28) (29), anti-inflammatory (30), and hepatoprotective (49) properties. It also demonstrated estrogenic effects (10), reduced cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin (31), and improved the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide (32).
Clinical data suggest utility of licorice in lowering dyspepsia (1), hyperlipidemia (33), and concurrent intake of a glycyrrhizin-containing product during alcohol consumption was shown to afford hepatoprotection (50). When combined with fermented milk containing Lactobacillus paracasei, licorice was shown to reduce bacterial density and to improve histologic inflammation in patients with H. pylori infection (62). Further, preoperative gargling with licorice solution affected significant reductions in postoperative sore throat when compared to gargling with sugar water (51). A systematic review also suggests benefits of preoperative use of topical licorice for preventing postoperative sore throat (63). Additional studies reported licorice, taken orally, to be useful in improving symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease (67); as a mouthwash to improve xerostomia in hemodialysis patients (52); and as a mucoadhesive film, with comparable efficacy as triamcinolone, for managing oral mucositis during radiotherapy (53).
Mechanism of Action
Glycyrrhizin, one of the bioactive compounds of licorice, has been shown to bind to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, and to exert its effects via inhibition of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (12). Licorice can reduce serum testosterone by inhibiting 17-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase (35) (36). It also contains isoflavones and other constituents that have estrogen receptor-modulating activities (10). The flavone and liquiritigenin components selectively activate ER-beta (11).
Liquiritigenin was shown to have neuroprotective effects in scopolamine-induced mice likely via increasing expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element binding (CREB) in the hippocampus (55). In addition, glycyrrhizic acid, a triterpene glycoside, demonstrated anti-allergic property by restoring the immune balance of subsets 1 and 2 of T helper cells in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly reduced B cells producing allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 (56).
Licorice demonstrated chemo-preventive effects by modulating expression of Bcl-2/Bax proteins, which act as apoptotic regulatory factors (3); and via inhibiting carcinogenesis (4). Other mechanisms include inducing apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by regulation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway (60); and by modulating cyclin B1-CDK1 for G2/M arrest in prostate cancer cells (61).
The most common side effect of licorice is hypokalemic hypertension, which occurs secondary to inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a renal enzyme responsible for converting cortisol to cortisone. This inhibition results in enhancing the mineralocorticoid effects of cortisol (36) that include sodium retention and potassium excretion.
- Hypertension (16) (45) (57) (59) (66) (68), hypertensive retinopathy and nephropathy (59), lethargy, muscle pain, sodium retention, hypokalemia (17) (18) (19) (20) (26) (41) (59) (68), adrenal crisis (21), ventricular fibrillation (22), cardiac arrythmias (23), glycyrrhizic acid poisoning (25), leukoderma (42), and thrombocytopenia (43)have been reported following ingestion of licorice or licorice containing products.
- Excessive consumption of licorice was reported to trigger carpal tunnel syndrome (24).
- Licorice has been associated with intracranial hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral microbleeds (64).
- A systematic review showed an association between heavy licorice use and early preterm births (65).
- Fatal cardiac arrest: In a 54-year-old man following excessive consumption of licorice (one to two large bags daily for three weeks) (69).
Cardiac glycosides: Licorice may potentiate toxicity (24).
Diuretics: Licorice may increase the risk of hypokalemia (17) (18).
Insulin: Licorice may increase insulin sensitivity (38) . Clinical relevance is not known.
Anticoagulants: Licorice may increase the metabolism and clearance of warfarin (19). Clinical relevance is not known.
MAO-inhibitors (MAOIs): Licorice may potentiate activity of MAOIs. Clinical relevance is not known (37)
P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates: Licorice inhibited P-gp, resulting in increased intracellular concentration of the chemotherapy agent daunorubicin, which is a substrate of P-gp (34). Clinical relevance is not known.
Cytochrome P450 substrates: Glycyrrhizin, a major constituent of licorice, induces CYP3A (39) and CYP2D6 (44), and can affect the intracellular concentration of drugs metabolized by this enzyme. However, other constituents, like glabridin, glycycoumarin and licochalcone A from different species of licorice can inhibit these enzymes (40). Clinical relevance is not known.
Cyclosporine: Licorice greatly reduced the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine by activating P-gp and CYP3A4 (46). Clinical relevance is not known.
Cortisol acetate: Licorice increased cortisol availability in patients with Addison’s disease in the hours following oral administration of cortisone acetate (47).
Metformin: Pre-administration of licorice juice reduced the efficacy of metformin, in a rat model (58). The clinical relevance has yet to be determined.
Antihypertensives: Because of its hypertensive effects, licorice may interfere with antihypertensive medications (66).