Common Names

  • Comes in many forms including:
  • Magnesium glycinate
  • Magnesium oxide
  • Magnesium carbonate
  • Magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia)
  • Magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts)

For Patients & Caregivers

How It Works

There are many benefits to adequate intake of dietary magnesium. However, supplementation may increase the risk of interactions with many drugs.

Magnesium plays many essential roles in the human body. Adequate intake can help prevent chronic ailments such as heart disease and diabetes, but its potential role in cancer prevention is unclear. Many adults may not get enough through diet, but a true deficiency most often occurs with serious illnesses. Certain medications can also cause deficiency. Magnesium products are also used as drugs for a variety of medical conditions, and treatment is carefully monitored to prevent serious side effects. There are case reports of excess levels due to supplements. Because supplements may interact with many drugs, and magnesium itself is a component of certain over-the-counter drugs, supplements should be avoided in patients with heart, kidney, or gastrointestinal disorders. You should also inform your doctor of any over-the-counter products that you are taking which could contain magnesium.

Purported Uses

  • To prevent asthma
    Low levels of magnesium from the diet have been associated with the occurrence of asthma and a few small studies show that supplements may benefit lung function.
  • To prevent heart disease
    Magnesium supplements may be beneficial for certain types of heart disease, but there are no studies to show that supplements prevent heart disease.
  • To lower high blood pressure
    Studies conflict on whether magnesium supplements provide benefit. Larger and longer-term studies are needed.
  • To prevent diabetes
    Magnesium supplements have been shown to improve insulin levels in overweight non-diabetic individuals, suggesting that adequate levels may help prevent the onset of diabetes. Larger studies are needed.
  • To help bone development or prevent weak bones
    Small studies show that magnesium supplements have positive effects on bone development in adolescents and can prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women.
  • To prevent fatigue
    There are no studies of oral magnesium supplements for chronic fatigue. A small study has shown that they reduced fatigue symptoms in breast cancer patients with menopausal hot flashes.
  • To reduce hot flashes
    A small study has shown that magnesium can reduce hot flashes with few side effects in breast cancer patients.
  • To improve premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms
    It is unclear whether magnesium can help premenstrual syndrome.
  • To prevent migraines
    There is some evidence that magnesium can help prevent migraines, and several medical guidelines include it as a potential therapy.
  • To relieve leg cramps
    Some studies of moderate quality support the use of magnesium for leg cramps during pregnancy.
  • To relieve acid indigestion, heartburn, sour stomach, and constipation
    (Common Use)

    Magnesium is an active ingredient in many over-the-counter preparations including laxatives and antacids. Many individuals may not realize that they are possibly getting magnesium from these common sources.

Patient Warnings

Supplements, antacids or laxatives containing magnesium can interact with many drugs, including antibiotics and medications for chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Magnesium levels in the body can also be affected by numerous prescription drugs, including the long-term use of drugs commonly used to treat digestive disorders. If you are under treatment for a medical condition, have a complicated medical history, or are in frail condition, you should discuss supplements or antacids that you are taking with your doctor.

Do Not Take If

  • You have kidney problems such as renal insufficiency or end-stage renal disease.
  • You have gastrointestinal problems such as a bowel obstruction or other bowel disorders.
  • You are taking antibiotics: Supplements, antacids and laxatives containing magnesium may reduce their effectiveness.
  • You are a patient with heart block, a conduction disturbance in the heart.
  • You are taking cardiovascular drugs for heart disease: Magnesium and other electrolyte levels should be monitored by your doctor.
  • You are taking drugs for high blood pressure including calcium channel blockers: Magnesium-containing products could have an additive effect.
  • You are taking sulphonylurea drugs for diabetes: Magnesium supplements or antacids may cause low blood sugar levels.

Side Effects

  • Diarrhea, nausea, and mild abdominal or bone pain with high doses of magnesium.
  • Although magnesium overdose is relatively rare, there have been some cases in patients with a poor health status using laxatives and with gastrointestinal or kidney problems.
  • Getting magnesium through a diet rich in leafy vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fruits, and fish is not associated with any side effects.
Back to top

For Healthcare Professionals

Brand Name

Slow-mag®, MAG 2®, Mag-Ox®

Clinical Summary

Magnesium is an essential mineral involved in numerous biochemical processes, including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, cellular signal transduction, DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, and bone formation (1) (2). It also helps regulate blood pressure and enzymes such as those that control intracellular calcium and potassium, and is essential for normal heart functioning (1) (3). The dietary form can be found in many foods, and especially in dark green leafy vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fruits, and fish (4).

In dietary supplements, other over-the-counter products, and pharmaceutical preparations, magnesium is combined with another substance such as a salt or acid, and has specific therapeutic uses. The carbonate, hydroxide, and oxide forms are found in antacid and laxative products whereas citrate is used as a laxative before diagnostic procedures or surgery of the colon. The chloride, gluconate, lactate, and sulfate forms are clinically used to treat magnesium deficiency.

Both dietary and supplemental forms have been studied widely for their potential role in chronic ailments such as heart disease and diabetes. Dietary intake is associated with reduced mortality from cardiovascular disease, especially for women (5). It is also associated with reduced risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), although studies have been mixed and more affirmative for the effect of serum magnesium on SCD (6) (7). It may help reduce the risk of ischemic stroke (8), metabolic syndrome (9) (10), type 2 diabetes (11) and insulin resistance (12), asthma (13), and osteoporosis (1), but findings from studies on depression are conflicting (14) (15). Other studies also have not linked dietary consumption with cancer incidence and mortality (16), or pancreatic cancer risk (17), but have associated higher intake with a lower risk for colorectal tumors (18) and lung cancer (19). Additional studies are needed to confirm these effects.

Magnesium supplementation has been evaluated for a variety of health conditions. Oral intake may increase survival in patients with heart failure (20) (21), and improve insulin sensitivity in healthy adults (22). In a study of overweight individuals, supplementation resulted in changes in gene expression and other positive effects on metabolic pathways (23). Some studies have shown a reduction in blood pressure following supplementation (24) (25), but an earlier systematic review suggests the positive findings are due to poor trial design and short duration (26). Also in contrast, data from a large, community-based cohort did not show low serum levels to be a risk factor for developing hypertension or cardiovascular disease (27).

Other studies of oral supplements have demonstrated positive effects on bone mass accrual in healthy adolescents with inadequate intake (28), and suppressed bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women (29). In adults with asthma, supplementation improved objective measures of airway resistance and subjective measures of asthma control and quality of life (13); in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis, it has improved respiratory muscle strength (30). There is also moderate evidence for its use in migraine headache and prophylaxis (31). Although preliminary data have shown mixed results with oral supplementation for premenstrual syndrome (32), a pilot study indicates that it reduces menopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients (33), and a systematic review supports its use for leg cramps during pregnancy (34). Larger studies are needed to elucidate conflicting results and clarify the roles for supplementation across various health conditions.

Many adults, particularly African-Americans (35) and the elderly (9), may not have adequate dietary intakes of magnesium. However, true deficiency most often occurs with critical illness including cardiac conditions and preeclampsia, as well as gastrointestinal and renal conditions, poorly-controlled diabetes, and alcoholism (3). In addition, certain medications including calcineurin inhibitors (36), high-dose antivirals (37), and the long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (38), as well as some cancer therapy regimens (39) (40) and surgical procedures (41) (42), may also cause hypomagnesemia. If deficiency is suspected, patients should be evaluated by their treating physician to determine the extent of inadequate intake and its effective management, as well as to avoid potential drug interactions or magnesium toxicity.

Hypermagnesemia is rare and results from failure to excrete magnesium or because of excessive intake. It may especially occur in patients with gastrointestinal or renal dysfunction, and have serious effects such as hypotension, bradycardia, depression of tendon reflexes, and other cardiovascular and neuromuscular manifestations (43) (44).

Food Sources

Leafy vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fruits and fish (4)

Purported Uses

  • Asthma
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Diabetes
  • Fatigue
  • Hot flashes
  • Hypertension
  • Leg cramps
  • Migraines
  • Osteoporosis
  • Premenstrual syndrome

Mechanism of Action

Magnesium plays a significant role in vascular and metabolic biology as well as numerous biochemical reactions. It negatively regulates vascular calcification and osteogenic differentiation through an increase or restoration of transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) activity and increased expression of anticalcification proteins, in vitro (45). It also influences blood pressure levels through interactions with the renin-angiotensin system, by acting as a calcium channel blocker to reduce vascular resistance, and by modulating vascular tone and reactivity (46) (47). Further, it contributes to the homeostasis of electrolytes in cells via sodium-potassium pump activation (47) and can revert impaired intracellular ion homeostasis (25).

As a cofactor of all reactions involving ATP transfer, magnesium is a major determinant of insulin and glucose metabolism, critical to carbohydrate metabolism, and regulates the activity of all enzymes involved in phosphorylation reactions (48). These vascular and metabolic mechanisms are echoed by observed relationships between deficiency and oxidative stress, proinflammatory states, endothelial dysfunction, platelet aggregation, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia (48) (49). A possible mechanism of cardiovascular benefits may be via a reduction in arterial stiffness (76).

Magnesium can also serve an immunomodulatory function by regulating NF-kB activation and cytokine production, and limiting systemic inflammation (50). It also reduces markers for systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction including C-reactive protein (4) (51). Its salts are poorly absorbed, and act as an osmotic laxative by retaining water in the intestine. The mechanism by which it may affect the bioavailability of concomitantly administered drugs is through the formation of insoluble chelate complexes with those drugs, substantially reducing their bioavailability (52).

Experimental and epidemiological evidence for the role of magnesium in cancer is conflicting. Its part in cellular metabolism and maintaining genetic stability, regulation of cell proliferation, and protection against insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and systemic inflammation are also cancer-preventive attributes (18) (19). At the same time, hypomagnesemia as a side effect of some cancer treatments may produce an inhibitory effect on tumor growth and neo-angiogenesis, but magnesium levels are also increased in tumors both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting its multiple and possibly dichotomous roles in cancer (53) (54).




Individuals with other heart, kidney, or gastrointestinal disorders (44), should not take magnesium supplements without a doctor’s supervision.

Adverse Reactions

Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea, nausea; nonspecific mild abdominal or bone pain (24) (26) (33).

Case reports

  • Hypermagnesemia due to ingestion of magnesium oxide by a 72-year-old woman with constipation and prolonged colonic retention caused prolonged hypotension and decreased perfusion, which led to hypoxic encephalopathy (44).
  • Laxatives-induced severe hypermagnesemia complicated with cardiopulmonary arrest in a 55-year-old woman with nephritic syndrome and anorexia nervosa (58).
  • Hypermagnesemia in the absence of pre-existing renal dysfunction in a 76-year-old woman with ileus (59).

Herb-Drug Interactions

Aminoglycosides: Can cause renal magnesium wasting and subsequent deficiency (60).
Antibiotics: Magnesium or antacids may reduce the absorption of fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and nitrofurantoin. Magnesium-containing products, if needed, should be taken in accordance with the prescribing information of these antibacterials (52) (61) (62).
Anticoagulants: Magnesium or antacids can increase rate and extent of absorption (63).
Antidiabetics: Magnesium or antacids can increase rate and extent of absorption of sulphonylurea drugs (63).
Antifungals: Magnesium or antacids may reduce the rate and extent of itraconazole absorption (64).
Antimicrobials (pentamidine): Can cause renal magnesium wasting and subsequent deficiency (60).
Antivirals (ribavirin): High-dose antivirals may cause hypomagnesemia (37).
Bisphosphonates: Calcium/magnesium levels may be affected in patients receiving bisphosphonate therapy (65). In addition, antacids may interfere with absorption of bisphosphonates (52).
Calcineurin inhibitors: May cause hypomagnesemia (36).
Calcium channel blockers: Magnesium may potentiate blood pressure-lowering effects (66).
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy: May cause hypomagnesemia (39).
Dasatinib: May increase blood levels of magnesium (67).
Digoxin: Digoxin reduces tubular magnesium reabsorption. In patients with congestive heart failure effects may be cumulative with diuretics, diet, and poor intestinal absorption. Hypomagnesemia may increase adverse effects such as palpitations and nausea with digoxin. Magnesium and other electrolyte levels should be monitored in patients treated with cardiovascular drugs (68) (69).
Diuretics: Loop and thiazide diuretics are electrolyte-depleting, and can cause renal magnesium wasting and subsequent deficiency (60). Cumulative effects with other cardiovascular drugs may occur (see Digoxin entry).
Monoclonal antibodies (cetuximab, panitumumab): These cancer drugs target the epidermal-growth-factor receptor and hypomagnesemia is a frequent side effect (40). Electrolytes are monitored during and following treatment, and appropriate treatment instituted (70) (71).
Neuromuscular blockers: Magnesium supplements may potentiate the effects of neuromuscular blockers used in clinical settings (72) (73).
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Antacids can increase rate and extent of absorption (63).
Proton pump inhibitors: Long-term use may cause hypomagnesemia (38).
Synthetic thyroid hormone: Two case reports of magnesium-containing antacids/laxatives reduced the effectiveness of levothyroxine (74).

Dosage (OneMSK Only)


  1. Rude RK, Singer FR, Gruber HE. Skeletal and hormonal effects of magnesium deficiency. J Am Coll Nutr. Apr 2009;28(2):131-141.

  2. Hartwig A. Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutat Res. Apr 18 2001;475(1-2):113-121.

  3. Tong GM, Rude RK. Magnesium deficiency in critical illness. J Intensive Care Med. Jan-Feb 2005;20(1):3-17.

  4. Zhang W, Iso H, Ohira T, et al. Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: the JACC study. Atherosclerosis. Apr 2012;221(2):587-595.

  5. Chiuve SE, Korngold EC, Januzzi JL, Jr., et al. Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr. Feb 2011;93(2):253-260.

  6. Peacock JM, Ohira T, Post W, et al. Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Heart J. Sep 2010;160(3):464-470.

  7. Larsson SC, Orsini N, Wolk A. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. Feb 2012;95(2):362-366.

  8. McKeown NM, Jacques PF, Zhang XL, et al. Dietary magnesium intake is related to metabolic syndrome in older Americans. Eur J Nutr. Jun 2008;47(4):210-216.

  9. He K, Liu K, Daviglus ML, et al. Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults. Circulation. Apr 4 2006;113(13):1675-1682.

  10. Dong JY, Xun P, He K, et al. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Care. Sep 2011;34(9):2116-2122.

  11. Huerta MG, Roemmich JN, Kington ML, et al. Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children. Diabetes Care. May 2005;28(5):1175-1181.

  12. Forsyth AK, Williams PG, Deane FP. Nutrition status of primary care patients with depression and anxiety. Aust J Prim Health. 2012;18(2):172-176.

  13. Derom ML, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Sayon-Orea Mdel C, et al. Magnesium intake is not related to depression risk in Spanish university graduates. J Nutr. Jun 2012;142(6):1053-1059.

  14. Wark PA, Lau R, Norat T, et al. Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. Aug 1 2012.

  15. Mahabir S, Wei Q, Barrera SL, et al. Dietary magnesium and DNA repair capacity as risk factors for lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. May 2008;29(5):949-956.

  16. Stepura OB, Martynow AI. Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure (MACH). Int J Cardiol. May 1 2009;134(1):145-147.

  17. Almoznino-Sarafian D, Sarafian G, Berman S, et al. Magnesium administration may improve heart rate variability in patients with heart failure. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Nov 2009;19(9):641-645.

  18. Kass L, Weekes J, Carpenter L. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. Apr 2012;66(4):411-418.

  19. Hatzistavri LS, Sarafidis PA, Georgianos PI, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. Am J Hypertens. Oct 2009;22(10):1070-1075.

  20. Dickinson HO, Nicolson DJ, Campbell F, et al. Magnesium supplementation for the management of essential hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006(3):CD004640.

  21. Khan AM, Sullivan L, McCabe E, et al. Lack of association between serum magnesium and the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J. Oct 2010;160(4):715-720.

  22. Carpenter TO, DeLucia MC, Zhang JH, et al. A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Dec 2006;91(12):4866-4872.

  23. Aydin H, Deyneli O, Yavuz D, et al. Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Biol Trace Elem Res. Feb 2010;133(2):136-143.

  24. Whelan AM, Jurgens TM, Naylor H. Herbs, vitamins and minerals in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review. Can J Clin Pharmacol. Fall 2009;16(3):e407-429.

  25. Park H, Parker GL, Boardman CH, et al. A pilot phase II trial of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients. Support Care Cancer. Jun 2011;19(6):859-863.

  26. Young GL, Jewell D. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002(1):CD000121.

  27. Fox CH, Mahoney MC, Ramsoomair D, et al. Magnesium deficiency in African-Americans: does it contribute to increased cardiovascular risk factors? J Natl Med Assoc. Apr 2003;95(4):257-262.

  28. Sanchez-Fructuoso AI, Santin Cantero JM, Perez Flores I, et al. Changes in magnesium and potassium homeostasis after conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor regimen to an mTOR inhibitor-based regimen. Transplant Proc. Oct 2010;42(8):3047-3049.

  29. Mackay JD, Bladon PT. Hypomagnesaemia due to proton-pump inhibitor therapy: a clinical case series. QJM. Jun 2010;103(6):387-395.

  30. Hodgkinson E, Neville-Webbe HL, Coleman RE. Magnesium depletion in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). Nov 2006;18(9):710-718.

  31. Petrelli F, Borgonovo K, Cabiddu M, et al. Risk of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody-related hypomagnesemia: systematic review and pooled analysis of randomized studies. Expert Opin Drug Saf. May 2012;11 Suppl 1:S9-19.

  32. Dalcanale L, Oliveira CP, Faintuch J, et al. Long-term nutritional outcome after gastric bypass. Obes Surg. Feb 2010;20(2):181-187.

  33. Van Laecke S, Desideri F, Geerts A, et al. Hypomagnesemia and the risk of new-onset diabetes after liver transplantation. Liver Transpl. Nov 2010;16(11):1278-1287.

  34. Swaminathan R. Magnesium metabolism and its disorders. Clin Biochem Rev. May 2003;24(2):47-66.

  35. Weng YM, Chen SY, Chen HC, et al. Hypermagnesemia in a Constipated Female. J Emerg Med. Jan 13 2012.

  36. Montezano AC, Zimmerman D, Yusuf H, et al. Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation to an osteogenic phenotype involves TRPM7 modulation by magnesium. Hypertension. Sep 2010;56(3):453-462.

  37. Cunha AR, Umbelino B, Correia ML, et al. Magnesium and vascular changes in hypertension. Int J Hypertens. 2012;2012:754250.

  38. Sontia B, Touyz RM. Magnesium transport in hypertension. Pathophysiology. Dec 2007;14(3-4):205-211.

  39. Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ. Magnesium metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Arch Biochem Biophys. Feb 1 2007;458(1):40-47.

  40. Mazur A, Maier JA, Rock E, et al. Magnesium and the inflammatory response: potential physiopathological implications. Arch Biochem Biophys. Feb 1 2007;458(1):48-56.

  41. Sugimoto J, Romani AM, Valentin-Torres AM, et al. Magnesium decreases inflammatory cytokine production: a novel innate immunomodulatory mechanism. J Immunol. Jun 15 2012;188(12):6338-6346.

  42. Song Y, Li TY, van Dam RM, et al. Magnesium intake and plasma concentrations of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in women. Am J Clin Nutr. Apr 2007;85(4):1068-1074.

  43. Ogawa R, Echizen H. Clinically significant drug interactions with antacids: an update. Drugs. Oct 1 2011;71(14):1839-1864.

  44. Wolf FI, Trapani V. Magnesium and its transporters in cancer: a novel paradigm in tumour development. Clin Sci (Lond). Oct 2012;123(7):417-427.

  45. Maier JA, Nasulewicz-Goldeman A, Simonacci M, et al. Insights into the mechanisms involved in magnesium-dependent inhibition of primary tumor growth. Nutr Cancer. 2007;59(2):192-198.

  46. Topf JM, Murray PT. Hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesemia. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. May 2003;4(2):195-206.

  47. Quamme GA. Recent developments in intestinal magnesium absorption. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. Mar 2008;24(2):230-235.

  48. Siener R, Jahnen A, Hesse A. Bioavailability of magnesium from different pharmaceutical formulations. Urol Res. Apr 2011;39(2):123-127.

  49. al-Ghamdi SM, Cameron EC, Sutton RA. Magnesium deficiency: pathophysiologic and clinical overview. Am J Kidney Dis. Nov 1994;24(5):737-752.

  50. Naggar VF, Khalil SA. Effect of magnesium trisilicate on nitrofurantoin absorption. Clin Pharmacol Ther. Jun 1979;25(6):857-863.

  51. Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT. Enhancement of drug absorption by antacids. An unrecognised drug interaction. Clin Pharmacokinet. Aug 1994;27(2):120-128.

  52. Lohitnavy M, Lohitnavy O, Thangkeattiyanon O, et al. Reduced oral itraconazole bioavailability by antacid suspension. J Clin Pharm Ther. Jun 2005;30(3):201-206.

  53. Vest AR, Cho LS. Hypertension in pregnancy. Cardiol Clin. Aug 2012;30(3):407-423.

  54. Takahashi S, Miyazaki M, Okamoto I, et al. Phase I study of dasatinib (BMS-354825) in Japanese patients with solid tumors. Cancer Sci. Nov 2011;102(11):2058-2064.

  55. Crippa G, Sverzellati E, Giorgi-Pierfranceschi M, et al. Magnesium and cardiovascular drugs: interactions and therapeutic role. Ann Ital Med Int. Jan-Mar 1999;14(1):40-45.

  56. Young IS, Goh EM, McKillop UH, et al. Magnesium status and digoxin toxicity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Dec 1991;32(6):717-721.

  57. Eli Lilly and Company, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. ERBITUX (cetuximab) prescribing information (revised 07/2012). Available at Accessed October 3, 2012.

  58. Amgen Inc. Vectibix (panitumumab) prescribing information (revised 08/2012). Available at Accessed October 3, 2012.

  59. Pinard AM, Donati F, Martineau R, et al. Magnesium potentiates neuromuscular blockade with cisatracurium during cardiac surgery. Can J Anaesth. Feb 2003;50(2):172-178.

  60. Mersebach H, Rasmussen AK, Kirkegaard L, et al. Intestinal adsorption of levothyroxine by antacids and laxatives: case stories and in vitro experiments. Pharmacol Toxicol. Mar 1999;84(3):107-109.

  61. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Dietary Reference Intakes Table: Elements Summary. Available at…. Accessed July 15, 2016.

Back to top
Back to top
Email your questions and comments to

Last Updated