- Numerous brand names. XanGo is a dietary supplement that contains <em>Garcinia mangostana</em> and other fruit juices. But it is not synonymous with the mangosteen fruit.
For Patients & Caregivers
Bottom Line: Mangosteen has not been shown to treat cancer in humans.
The fruits of mangosteen are used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea. Laboratory studies have shown that compounds present in the fruits of mangosteen are effective against bacterial and fungal infections and can reduce inflammation. Other studies have shown that mangosteen can inhibit the growth of leukemia and breast cancer cells. There is also evidence that some compounds in mangosteen act as free-radical scavengers to prevent LDL (low density lipoprotein) damage. However, it is not known at the present time if the same effects occur in the human body.
- Wound healing
Clinical data are lacking.
Laboratory studies suggest that mangosteen inhibits enzymes involved in inflammation.
This use is not supported by clinical trials.
There are no clinical data to support this use.
Laboratory studies have shown that mangosteen has antibacterial properties.
Several studies have indicated that the compounds present in mangosteen are effective against some fungi.
For Healthcare Professionals
Mangosteen is a plant native to Southeast Asia. The fruits are used in traditional medicine to treat skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea.
Recent studies have revealed that xanthones from the fruit hulls exhibit antibacterial (3), antifungal (4), and anti-inflammatory (5), cytototoxic (12) , aromatase-inhibitory (14) and anticancer (17)(18) properties and afford protection against doxorubicin-induced neurotoxicity (19).
Alpha-mangostin, a xanthone, inhibited growth of leukemia HL60 cells (1)(6), reduced the synthesis of prostaglandins (5), and prevented oxidative damage of LDL (7) in vitro. It was also shown to have renoprotective effects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (16). There is preliminary evidence that alpha- and gamma-mangostins act as histamine and serotonin receptor blockers (8), and inhibit HIV-1 protease (9). Garcinone E, another xanthone, exerts cytotoxic effects against hepatocellular carcinoma cells (10). Extract from the pericarp of mangosteen has antioxidant (13), antiproliferative and apoptotic effects (11).
Small studies in humans suggest its benefits as an adjunct for periodontal treatment (20) and for control of halitosis (21).
Mangosteen products may interfere with certain chemotherapeutic drugs.
Diabetic patients should use mangosteen juice with caution due to the sugar content.
The xanthones, alpha- and beta-mangostins, and garcinone B exhibit strong inhibitory effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3), and aromatase inhibitory activity (14). Alpha- and gamma-mangostins also antagonize the activities of histamine and serotonin by acting as receptor blockers (8).
Alpha-mangostin was shown to inhibit fatty acid synthase (FAS) believed to be via stronger action on the ketoacyl synthase domain and weaker effects on the acetyl/malonyl transferase domain (22). It also reduced the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting the activities of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes (5), and prevented oxidative damage of LDL by functioning as a free-radical scavenger (7).
In other studies, alpha-mangostin inhibited growth of leukemia HL60 cells by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis (1)(6). Its preventive effect on cisplatin-induced apoptotic death is associated with the inhibition of p53 expression and generation of reactive oxygen species (23). A recent study implicates the antitumor activity of alpha-mangostin to activation of autophagy and not ER stress induction (24).
Garcinone E also has cytotoxic effects against hepatocellular carcinoma cells (10). In vitro studies have demonstrated that a crude methanolic extract from the pericarp of mangosteen has antiproliferative, antioxidative, and apoptotic effects against SKBR3 breast cancer cells (11).
Chemotherapy: Mangosteen products have antioxidant effects (7) and may interfere with the action of anthracyclines, platinum compounds, and alkylating agents.
Cytochrome P450 substrates: Mangosteen inhibits CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11 and can affect the intracellular concentration of drugs metabolized by these enzymes (25).