For Patients & Caregivers

Mangosteen has not been shown to treat cancer in humans.

The fruits of mangosteen are used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea. Laboratory studies have shown that compounds present in mangosteen fruit are effective against bacterial and fungal infections and can reduce inflammation. Other studies have shown that mangosteen can inhibit the growth of various types of cancer cells. There is also evidence that some compounds in mangosteen act as free-radical scavengers to prevent damage by low density lipoprotein (LDL), more commonly known as bad cholesterol. However, it is not known at the present time if the same effects occur in the human body.

  • Wound healing
    Clinical data are lacking.
  • Inflammation
    Laboratory studies suggest that mangosteen inhibits enzymes involved in inflammation.
  • Diarrhea
    This use is not supported by clinical trials, and in an animal study appeared to worsen ulcerative colitis.
  • Ulcers
    There are no clinical data to support this use.
  • Antibacterial
    Laboratory studies have shown that mangosteen has antibacterial properties.
  • Antifungal
    Several studies have indicated that the compounds present in mangosteen are effective against some fungi.
  • You are taking cytochrome P450 substrate drugs: Mangosteen may increase the risk of side effects of these drugs.
  • You are taking calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus): Compounds isolated from mangosteen may have additive immunosuppressant effects if used with related drugs.
  • You are undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy: Mangosteen products have antioxidant effects and may therefore interfere with the intended effects of cancer treatments.
  • You have diabetes: Mangosteen is high in sugar content.
  • You have ulcerative colitis: Animal studies show that it can exacerbate symptoms of ulcerative colitis.

Case Report: Severe lactic acidosis following consumption of mangosteen juice daily for 12 months.

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For Healthcare Professionals

Garcinia mangostana

Mangosteen is a tropical plant native to Southeast Asia. The fruits are consumed as food but also used in traditional medicine to treat skin infections, wounds, and diarrhea. Mangosteen juice is marketed as a health drink and the pericarp, or fruit hull, can be found in many dietary supplements for their antioxidant activity. Preliminary evidence shows that xanthones from mangosteen exhibit antibacterial (3), antifungal (4), anti-inflammatory (5), antiatherosclerotic (7), anti-asthmatic (26), antiangiogenic (27), cytotoxic (12), aromatase-inhibitory (14), and anticancer (17) (18) properties. They may also provide protection against doxorubicin-induced neurotoxicity (19) and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (16).

Small studies in humans suggest benefits with mangosteen-containing products as an adjunct for periodontal treatment (20) and for control of halitosis (21). An herbal formula containing mangosteen extract may be helpful in weight management (28) (29), but confirmatory studies are needed.

Mangosteen products may interfere with certain chemotherapeutic drugs. Patients with diabetes or ulcerative colitis should also avoid mangosteen due to high sugar content and hypothetical potential for exacerbation of symptoms, respectively.

  • Bacterial infections
  • Diarrhea
  • Fungal infections
  • Inflammation
  • Skin infections
  • Wound healing

Many compounds isolated from mangosteen fruit and pericarp have been used in lab studies. Xanthones alpha- and beta-mangostins and garcinone B exhibit strong inhibitory effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  (3), as well as aromatase-inhibitor activity (14). Alpha- and gamma-mangostins act as histamine and serotonin receptor blockers (8) and inhibit HIV-1 protease (9). In animal models, they reduced major features of allergic asthma including airway inflammatory cell recruitment and hyperresponsiveness, increased Th2 cytokine levels, and attenuated increases in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, phosphorylation of Akt, and NF-kappaB (26). The ability of alpha-mangostin to inhibit fatty acid synthase may occur via stronger action on the ketoacyl synthase domain and weaker effects on the acetyl/malonyl transferase domain (22). It also reduced prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting COX-1 and -2 enzyme activities (5), and prevented oxidative damage of LDL by functioning as a free-radical scavenger (7). The compound isogarcinol isolated from mangosteen induces anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects in animal models (30) (31).

Chemopreventive properties of mangosteen xanthones against specific human cancer cell lines have also been demonstrated, including: alpha-mangostin in leukemia (1) (6) (32), breast (33) (34), gastric (35), and pancreatic cancer cells (36) (37); gartanin in urinary bladder cancer (38); and gamma-mangostin (39) and garcinone E (10) in liver cancer cells. Extracts from the pericarp of mangosteen also exhibit antioxidant (13), antiproliferative, and apoptotic effects (11).

The preventive effect of alpha-mangostin on cisplatin-induced apoptotic death is associated with the inhibition of p53 expression and generation of reactive oxygen species (23). Alpha-mangostin inhibited growth of leukemia HL60 cells by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis (1) (6). It reduced matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and -9 expression, increased E-cadherin expression, and suppressed the ERK signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cell lines (36). In chronic myeloid leukemia cells, it induced autophagy via increased expression of the autophagosome marker LC-3II and accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, in addition to antiproliferative and apoptotic effects (32). Another study also attributes the antitumor activity of alpha-mangostin to autophagy and not endoplasmic reticulum stress induction (24).

gamma-Mangostin demonstrated free radical scavenging activity in human liver cancer cells (39).

In bladder cancer cell lines, activities of gartanin suggest mTOR pathway inhibition, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression, and p53 pathway activation leading to apoptotic induction (38).

Patients with ulcerative colitis should avoid products high in alpha-mangostin as animal studies suggest this constituent may actually exacerbate symptoms (40).

Case Report: Severe lactic acidosis was reported following consumption of mangosteen juice daily for 12 months (15).

Chemotherapy: Mangosteen products have antioxidant effects (7) (13) (37) (41) and may interfere with the action of anthracyclines, platinum compounds, and alkylating agents.

Calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus): Isogarcinol isolated from Garcinia mangostana inhibits calcineurin. It may have additive immunosuppressant effects if used with related drugs.

Cytochrome P450 substrates: Mangosteen inhibits CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11 and can affect the intracellular concentration of drugs metabolized by these enzymes (25).

  1. Matsumoto K, et al.Induction of apoptosis by xanthones from mangosteen in human leukemia cell lines. J Nat Prod 2003; 66(8):1124-1127.
  2. Suksamrarn S, et al. Xanthones from the green fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana. J Nat Prod 2002; 65(5):761-763.
  3. Suksamrarn S, et al. Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2003; 51(7):857-859.
  4. Gopalakrishnan G, Banumathi B, Suresh G. Evaluation of the antifungal activity of natural xanthones from Garcinia mangostana and their synthetic derivatives. J Nat Prod 1997; 60(5):519-524.
  5. Nakatani K, et al. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthesis by gamma-mangostin, a xanthone derivative in mangosteen, in C6 rat glioma cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 63(1):73-79.
  6. Matsumoto K, et al. Preferential target is mitochondria in alpha-mangostin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia HL60 cells. Bioorg Med Chem 2004; 12(22):5799-5806.
  7. Williams P, et al. Mangostin inhibits the oxidative modification of human low density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res 1995; 23(2):175-184.
  8. Chairungsrilerd N, et al. Histaminergic and serotonergic receptor blocking substances from the medicinal plant Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 1996; 62(5):471-472.
  9. Chen SX, Wan M, Loh BN. Active constituents against HIV-1 protease from Garcinia mangostana. Planta Med 1996; 62(4):381-382.
  10. Ho CK, Huang YL, Chen CC. Garcinone E, a xanthone derivative, has potent cytotoxic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Planta Med 2002; 68(11):975-979.
  11. Moongkarndi P, et al. Antiproliferation, antioxidation and induction of apoptosis by Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) on SKBR3 human breast cancer cell line. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 90(1):161-166.
  12. Suksamrarn S, et al. Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones from the young fruit of Garcinia mangostana. Chem Pharm Bull 2006: 54(3): 301-5.
  13. Jung HA, et al. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinica mangostana (Mangosteen). J Agric Food Chem 2006; 54(6): 2077-82.
  14. Balunas MJ, Su B, Brueggemerier RW, Kinghorn AD. Xanthones from the Botanical Dietary Supplement Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) with Aromatase Inhibitory Activity. J Nat Prod. 2008 Jun 18.
  15. Wong LP, Klemmer PJ. Severe lactic acidosis associated with juice of the mangosteen fruit Garcinia mangostana. Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 May;51(5):829-33.
  16. Pérez-Rojas JM, Cruz C, García-López P, et al. Renoprotection by alpha-mangostin is related to the attenuation in renal oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Free Radic Res. 2009 Nov;43(11):1122-32.
  17. Krajarng A, Nakamura Y, Suksamrarn S, Watanapokasin R. Alpha-Mangostin Induces Apoptosis in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells through Downregulation of ERK/JNK and Akt Signaling Pathway. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 May 25;59(10):5746-54.
  18. Shibata MA, Iinuma M, Morimoto J, et al. alpha-Mangostin extracted from the pericarp of the mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn) reduces tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in an immunocompetent xenograft model of metastatic mammary cancer carrying a p53 mutation. BMC Med. 2011 Jun 3;9(1):69.
  19. Tangpong J, Miriyala S, Noel T, et al. Doxorubicin-induced central nervous system toxicity and protection by xanthone derivative of Garcinia mangostana. Neuroscience. 2011 Feb 23;175:292-9.
  20. Rassameemasmaung S, Sirikulsathean A, Amornchat C, et al. Topical application of Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp gel as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. Complement Ther Med. 2008 Oct;16(5):262-7.
  21. Rassameemasmaung S, Sirikulsathean A, Amornchat C, et al. Effects of herbal mouthwash containing the pericarp extract of Garcinia mangostana L on halitosis, plaque and papillary bleeding index. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2007 Jan;9(1):19-25.
  22. Quan X, Wang Y, Ma X, et al. α-Mangostin induces apoptosis and suppresses differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via inhibiting fatty acid synthase. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33376.
  23. Sánchez-Pérez Y, Morales-Bárcenas R, García-Cuellar CM, et al. The alpha-mangostin prevention on cisplatin-induced apoptotic death in LLC-PK1 cells is associated to an inhibition of ROS production and p53 induction. Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Oct 6;188(1):144-50.
  24. Kim SJ, Hong EH, Lee BR, et al. α-Mangostin Reduced ER Stress-mediated Tumor Growth through Autophagy Activation. Immune Netw. 2012 Dec;12(6):253-60.
  25. Chatuphonprasert W, Jarukamjorn K. Impact of six fruits—banana, guava, mangosteen, pineapple, ripe mango and ripe papaya—on murine hepatic cytochrome P450 activities. J Appl Toxicol. 2012 Dec;32(12):994-1001.
  26. Jang HY, Kwon OK, Oh SR, et al. Mangosteen xanthones mitigate ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. Food Chem Toxicol. Nov 2012;50(11):4042-4050.
  27. Jittiporn K, Suwanpradid J, Patel C, et al. Anti-angiogenic actions of the mangosteen polyphenolic xanthone derivative alpha-mangostin. Microvasc Res. May 2014;93:72-79.
  28. Stern JS, Peerson J, Mishra AT, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of an herbal formulation for weight management. J Med Food. Jun 2013;16(6):529-537.
  29. Stern JS, Peerson J, Mishra AT, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation for weight management. Obesity (Silver Spring). May 2013;21(5):921-927.
  30. Fu Y, Zhou H, Wang M, et al. Immune regulation and anti-inflammatory effects of isogarcinol extracted from Garcinia mangostana L. against collagen-induced arthritis. J Agric Food Chem. May 7 2014;62(18):4127-4134.
  31. Cen J, Shi M, Yang Y, et al. Isogarcinol is a new immunosuppressant. PLoS One. 2013;8(6):e66503.
  32. Chen JJ, Long ZJ, Xu DF, et al. Inhibition of autophagy augments the anticancer activity of alpha-mangostin in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Leuk Lymphoma. Mar 2014;55(3):628-638.
  33. Moongkarndi P, Jaisupa N, Samer J, et al. Comparison of the biological activity of two different isolates from mangosteen. J Pharm Pharmacol. Aug 2014;66(8):1171-1179.
  34. Kurose H, Shibata MA, Iinuma M, et al. Alterations in cell cycle and induction of apoptotic cell death in breast cancer cells treated with alpha-mangostin extracted from mangosteen pericarp. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:672428.
  35. Shan T, Cui XJ, Li W, et al. alpha-Mangostin suppresses human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via blockade of Stat3 signaling pathway. Acta Pharmacol Sin. Aug 2014;35(8):1065-1073.
  36. Yuan J, Wu Y, Lu G. alpha-Mangostin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and increasing E-cadherin expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. Oncol Lett. Jun 2013;5(6):1958-1964.
  37. Hafeez BB, Mustafa A, Fischer JW, et al. alpha-Mangostin: a dietary antioxidant derived from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. inhibits pancreatic tumor growth in xenograft mouse model. Antioxid Redox Signal. Aug 10 2014;21(5):682-699.
  38. Liu Z, Antalek M, Nguyen L, et al. The effect of gartanin, a naturally occurring xanthone in mangosteen juice, on the mTOR pathway, autophagy, apoptosis, and the growth of human urinary bladder cancer cell lines. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65 Suppl 1:68-77.
  39. Chang HF, Wu CH, Yang LL. Antitumour and free radical scavenging effects of gamma-mangostin isolated from Garcinia mangostana pericarps against hepatocellular carcinoma cell. J Pharm Pharmacol. Sep 2013;65(9):1419-1428.
  40. Gutierrez-Orozco F, Thomas-Ahner JM, Berman-Booty LD, et al. Dietary alpha-mangostin, a xanthone from mangosteen fruit, exacerbates experimental colitis and promotes dysbiosis in mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. Jun 2014;58(6):1226-1238.
  41. Xie Z, Sintara M, Chang T, et al. Functional beverage of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy adults. Food Sci Nutr. Jan 2015;3(1):32-38.
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