MGN-3

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MGN-3

Common Names

  • Modified rice bran
  • Arabinoxylan rice bran

For Patients & Caregivers

How It Works

MGN-3 has not been shown to prevent cancer, HIV or any other medical condition.

MGN-3 is a complex sugar derived from rice bran treated with extracts from three mushrooms: Shiitake, Coriolus versicolor, and Suehirotake. The manufacturer claims that it stimulates several aspects of the immune system, causing an overall immune stimulation. Laboratory studies show that MGN-3 can cause cell death in some cancer cells and increase their susceptibility to chemotherapy drugs.

Only a few short-term studies have been conducted in humans. It may improve the response and reduce the side effects of standard therapies in liver cancer patients, but larger studies are needed to confirm these observations.

Purported Uses
  • To treat cancer
    A clinical study shows MGN-3 may improve the response of standard therapies in liver cancer patients. However, there is no evidence that it can be used as a treatment alone.
  • To prevent and treat chemotherapy side effects
    MGN-3 reduced the side effects of standard therapies in liver cancer patients. Additional studies confirming such effects are needed.
  • To stimulate the immune system
    MGN-3 has been shown to stimulate immune cells in laboratory studies and in small studies of cancer patients.
  • To treat chronic fatigue syndrome
    A clinical study did not find MGN-3 effective in treating chronic fatigue syndrome.
Side Effects
  • No side effects have been reported.
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For Healthcare Professionals

Brand Name
Biobran®, Lentin Plus 1000
Clinical Summary

MGN-3 is a proprietary product derived from rice bran treated with extracts from three mushrooms: shiitake (Lentinus edodes), kawaratake (Coriolus versicolor), and suehirotake (Schizophyllum commune). Promoters of MGN-3 claim that it improves immune functioning against cancer and AIDS.

In vitro and animal studies suggest that MGN-3 might be useful in mounting immune responses against infections and cancer (15), facilitates apoptosis of human T-cell leukemia cells (6), and may protect against weight loss induced by cisplatin (8) and radiation (11). Other preclinical models suggest it may act as a chemosensitizer (7) (10) (16) (17) and radiosensitizer (18), and exert cytotoxic (19) and chemopreventive (20) effects.

A few small short-term studies of MGN-3 have been conducted in humans. Some suggest improvements in irritable bowel symptoms (21), health-related quality of life in older adults (22) and reduced viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis C (23). In small studies of cancer patients, MGN-3 increased overall response and reduced adverse effects of standard therapies (1), and improved immunomodulatory function (5) (12). Other preliminary studies suggest possible benefit with rice bran arabinoxylan in combination with curcumin for patients with early-stage blood cancers (24).

Food Sources

Rice, mushrooms

Purported Uses
  • Cancer treatment
  • Chemotherapy side effects
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Immunostimulation
Mechanism of Action

MGN-3 is an arabinoxylan from rice bran made using enzymes from mycelia of shiitake, kawaratake, and suehirotake mushrooms. The bioactive constituents are thought to be polysaccharides, which modulate the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion, and augment natural killer (NK) cell function in vitro (3).

In rat models, MGN-3 exerted protective effects against D-galactosamine-induced liver injury by reducing expression of interleukin (IL-18) (13). It also protected against D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis by suppressing inhibition of NF-κB, JNK phosphorylation, and CD14 expression (14).

MGN-3 displayed synergistic effects with paclitaxel by causing DNA damage, enhancing apoptosis, and inhibiting cell proliferation in murine breast cancer cells (10). In another study, MGN-3 exerted antioxidative activity and protected against radiation-induced loss of body and organ weight in mice (11).

In a study of myeloma patients, MGN-3 increased NK cell activity, the number of myeloid dendritic cells in peripheral blood, and concentrations of T helper cell type 1-related cytokines (12).

Adverse Reactions

None reported.

Herb-Drug Interactions

None reported.

Herb Lab Interactions

MGN-3 reduces alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing standard therapies (1).

Dosage (OneMSK Only)
References
  1. Ghoneum MH, Maeda H. Immunopotentiator and method of manufacturing the same (Arabinoxylane Compound). U.S. Patent #5560914. Filed July 12, 1995.

  2. Ghoneum M. Anti-HIV activity in vitro of MGN-3, an activated arabinoxylane from rice bran. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998;243:25.

  3. Ghoneum M. NK Immunomodulatory function in 27 cancer patients by MGN-3. Abstract, 87th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research. April 20-24, 1996.

  4. Ghoneum M, Badr El-Din NK, Ali DA, El-Dein MA. Modified arabinoxylan from rice bran, MGN-3/biobran, sensitizes metastatic breast cancer cells to paclitaxel in vitro. Anticancer Res. 2014 Jan;34(1):81-7.

  5. Ghoneum M, Badr El-Din NK, Abdel Fattah SM, Tolentino L. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) provides protection against whole-body γ-irradiation in mice via restoration of hematopoietic tissues. J Radiat Res. 2013 May;54(3):419-29.

  6. Cholujova D, Jakubikova J, Czako B, et al. MGN-3 arabinoxylan rice bran modulates innate immunity in multiple myeloma patients. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2013 Mar;62(3):437-45.

  7. Zheng S, Sanada H, Dohi H, Hirai S, Egashira Y. Suppressive effect of modified arabinoxylan from rice bran (MGN-3) on D-galactosamine-induced IL-18 expression and hepatitis in rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76(5):942-6.

  8. Ghoneum M, Agrawal S. Mgn-3/biobran enhances generation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells via upregulation of dec-205 expression on dendritic cells. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. Oct-Dec 2014;27(4):523-530.

  9. Ghoneum M, Badr El-Din NK, Ali DA, et al. Modified arabinoxylan from rice bran, MGN-3/biobran, sensitizes metastatic breast cancer cells to paclitaxel in vitro. Anticancer Res. Jan 2014;34(1):81-87.

  10. Badr El-Din NK, Ali DA, Alaa El-Dein M, et al. Enhancing the Apoptotic Effect of a Low Dose of Paclitaxel on Tumor Cells in Mice by Arabinoxylan Rice Bran (MGN-3/Biobran). Nutr Cancer. Aug-Sep 2016;68(6):1010-1020.

  11. Perez-Martinez A, Valentin J, Fernandez L, et al. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) enhances natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo. Cytotherapy. May 2015;17(5):601-612.

  12. Salama H, Medhat E, Shaheen M, et al. Arabinoxylan rice bran (Biobran) suppresses the viremia level in patients with chronic HCV infection: A randomized trial. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. Dec 2016;29(4):647-653.

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