- Modified rice bran
- Arabinoxylan rice bran
For Patients & Caregivers
How It Works
MGN-3 has not been shown to prevent cancer, HIV or any other medical condition.
MGN-3 is a complex sugar derived from rice bran treated with extracts from three mushrooms: Shiitake, Coriolus versicolor, and Suehirotake. The manufacturer claims that it stimulates several aspects of the immune system, causing an overall immune stimulation. Laboratory studies show that MGN-3 can cause cell death in some cancer cells and increase their susceptibility to chemotherapy drugs.
Only a few short-term studies have been conducted in humans. It may improve the response and reduce the side effects of standard therapies in liver cancer patients, but larger studies are needed to confirm these observations.
To treat cancer
A clinical study shows MGN-3 may improve the response of standard therapies in liver cancer patients. However, there is no evidence that it can be used as a treatment alone.
To prevent and treat chemotherapy side effects
MGN-3 reduced the side effects of standard therapies in liver cancer patients. Additional studies confirming such effects are needed.
To stimulate the immune system
MGN-3 has been shown to stimulate immune cells in laboratory studies and in small studies of cancer patients.
To treat chronic fatigue syndrome
A clinical study did not find MGN-3 effective in treating chronic fatigue syndrome.
For Healthcare Professionals
MGN-3 is a proprietary product derived from rice bran treated with extracts from three mushrooms: shiitake (Lentinus edodes), kawaratake (Coriolus versicolor), and suehirotake (Schizophyllum commune). Promoters of MGN-3 claim that it improves immune functioning against cancer and AIDS.
In vitro and animal studies suggest that MGN-3 might be useful in mounting immune responses against infections and cancer (15), facilitates apoptosis of human T-cell leukemia cells (6), and may protect against weight loss induced by cisplatin (8) and radiation (11). Other preclinical models suggest it may act as a chemosensitizer (7) (10) (16) (17) and radiosensitizer (18), and exert cytotoxic (19) and chemopreventive (20) effects.
A few small short-term studies of MGN-3 have been conducted in humans. Some suggest improvements in irritable bowel symptoms (21), health-related quality of life in older adults (22) and reduced viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis C (23). In small studies of cancer patients, MGN-3 increased overall response and reduced adverse effects of standard therapies (1), and improved immunomodulatory function (5) (12). Other preliminary studies suggest possible benefit with rice bran arabinoxylan in combination with curcumin for patients with early-stage blood cancers (24).
Mechanism of Action
MGN-3 is an arabinoxylan from rice bran made using enzymes from mycelia of shiitake, kawaratake, and suehirotake mushrooms. The bioactive constituents are thought to be polysaccharides, which modulate the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion, and augment natural killer (NK) cell function in vitro (3).
In rat models, MGN-3 exerted protective effects against D-galactosamine-induced liver injury by reducing expression of interleukin (IL-18) (13). It also protected against D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis by suppressing inhibition of NF-κB, JNK phosphorylation, and CD14 expression (14).
MGN-3 displayed synergistic effects with paclitaxel by causing DNA damage, enhancing apoptosis, and inhibiting cell proliferation in murine breast cancer cells (10). In another study, MGN-3 exerted antioxidative activity and protected against radiation-induced loss of body and organ weight in mice (11).
In a study of myeloma patients, MGN-3 increased NK cell activity, the number of myeloid dendritic cells in peripheral blood, and concentrations of T helper cell type 1-related cytokines (12).