- Golden root
- Rose root
- Hong Jing Tian
- Rose root extract
For Patients & Caregivers
Bottom Line: Rhodiola was shown to improve physical and mental performance by reducing fatigue caused by stress.
Rhodiola is used in traditional medicine in Eastern Europe and Asia as a stimulant, to improve performance, and to reduce fatigue and depression. Some pilot studies in humans do support these claims, but more studies are needed. Because it may interact through pathways the body uses to metabolize prescription medications, patients should ask their doctor before taking rhodiola supplements.
Human studies showed that rhodiola may improve anxiety or mild to moderate depression. Further research is needed.
Several studies found that rhodiola can reduce fatigue under stressful conditions.
Rhodiola improved exercise capacity and mental performance in human studies.
Sixty patients with breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive salidroside 600 mg daily or placebo starting one week before and throughout chemotherapy. Echocardiography and other tests were done at baseline and 7 days after each new epirubicin dose. The investigators concluded that salidroside may be protective against epirubicin-induced early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction in patients with breast cancer.
This study was done to determine whether rhodiola extract was effective in treating men and women with mild to moderate depression. Eight-nine patients were divided into three groups receiving either different doses of rhodiola or a placebo. The study found that depression improved in both groups receiving rhodiola compared with placebo, without any serious side-effects being reported.
This study was done to determine the effects of rhodiola extract on mental performance under stress and fatigue. One hundred and sixty-one cadets were divided into groups that received either different doses of rhodiola or a placebo. The study found that the groups who received rhodiola had lower fatigue and performed better compared with those on placebo.
- You are taking drugs that are substrates of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (Rhodiola may increase the risk of side effects of these drugs).
- You are taking drugs that are substrates of P-glycoprotein (Rhodiola may increase the risk of side effects of these drugs).
- You are taking antidepressants (Rhodiola may increase the risk of side effects of these drugs).
- You are taking drugs for high blood pressure (Rhodiola may increase the risk of side effects of these drugs).
- You are taking drugs that stimulate the central nervous system (Rhodiola may increase the risk of side effects of these drugs).
For Healthcare Professionals
Rhodiola is a plant used in traditional medicine in Eastern Europe and Asia to enhance physical and mental performance, stimulate the nervous system, and fight depression. Rhodiola rosea extract and its key constituent salidroside have been esearched, although studies in humans are limited.
In vitro studies indicate that salidroside from rhodiola may have neuroprotective (8)(9) and anticancer effects (10).
Supplementation with rhodiola has been shown to improve physical endurance (1) and mental performance (2)(3), reduce stress-induced fatigue in humans (4)(5), and improve stress symptoms (19). However, additional, well-designed studies are needed to determine the true efficacy of rhodiola (20).
Preliminary data also suggest that it may be effective against generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (6), and in the treatment of mild to moderate depression (7).
A small study showed that salidroside may have cardioprotective effects in patients with breast cancer receiving treatment with epirubicin (11), but more data are needed to confirm this effect.
Because rhodiola inhibits cytochrome P450 enzymes, p-glycoproteins and monoamine oxidase, it may interact with certain prescription drugs.
In animal models, rhodiola exhibits dose- and time-dependent Th1 and Th2 cytokine modulation effects (16). Salidroside confers neuroprotective effects via nitric oxide (NO) pathway inhibition in vitro (9) and through induction of antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin, heme oxygenase-1, and peroxiredoxin-I; downregulation of proapoptotic Bax protein; and upregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-XL proteins (8). Another study shows the constituents of rhodiola have synergistic antioxidant activity (17). In vitro, rhodiola inhibits monoamine oxidases (MAOs) A and B suggesting that it has antidepressant effects (13).
In human breast cancer cells, salidroside induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis via mechanisms as yet unidentified, but independent of the estrogen receptor (10).
- Cytochrome P450 3A4 substrates: Rhodiola inhibits CYP3A4 and can affect the intracellular concentration of drugs metabolized by this enzyme (12)(21).
- P-glycoprotein substrates: Rhodiola was shown to inhibit P-gp activity and can interfere with the metabolism of certain drugs (12)(21).
- Antidepressants: Rhodiola has MAO inhibition activity and may increase the serotonergic side effects (13).
- Antihypertensives: Rhodiola has MAO inhibition activity and may increase the hypotensive side effects (13).
- CNS Stimulants: Rhodiola has MAO inhibition activity and may enhance the hypertensive effect (13).
Zhang H, et al. Protective effects of salidroside on epirubicin-induced early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction in patients with breast cancer. Drugs R D. Jun 1 2012;12(2):101-106.
The cardioprotective effects of salidroside were evaluated in 60 patients with breast cancer randomized to receive salidroside 600 mg/day or placebo (n=30 each) starting 1 week before and throughout chemotherapy. Evaluation measures included echocardiography, strain rate (SR) imaging, and plasma concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) assessed at baseline and 7 days after each new epirubicin dose of 100 mg/m2. Although no differences in SR peak were observed at an epirubicin dose of 200 mg/m2, SR significantly normalized with salidroside vs placebo at 300 mg/m2 and 400mg/m2 of epirubicin. In addition, plasma concentrations of ROS were unchanged with salidroside, but significantly increased with placebo. The investigators concluded that salidroside may be protective against epirubicin-induced early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction in patients with breast cancer.
Darbinyan V, et al. Clinical trial of Rhodiola rosea L. extract SHR-5 in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. Nord J Psychiatry. 2007;61(5):343-348.
Rhodiola rosea rhizome standardized extract SHR-5 was evaluated in 89 patients suffering from a current episode of mild to moderate depression in this double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Men and women aged 18-70 years with Hamilton Depression (HAMD) scores between 21 and 31 were randomized to receive either two 170-mg tablets daily (Group A: 340 mg/day total, n=31), two 170-mg tablets twice daily (Group B: 680 mg/day total, n=29), or placebo (Group C: n=29) for a 6-week period. Efficacy from total and specific subgroup HAMD scores with respect to depressive complaints was assessed on days 0 and 42 of the study period. In Groups A and B, overall depression, insomnia, emotional instability, and somatization, but not self-esteem, improved significantly following treatment compared with placebo. No serious side-effects were reported in any treatment group.
Shevtsov VA, et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine. Mar 2003;10(2-3):95-105.
In this study 161 cadets, ages 19 to 21 years, were randomized to receive either a single dose of standardized rhodiola extract, a single dose that was 50% stronger than the standardized dose, or placebo. Researchers found that the cadets who received rhodiola extract showed significant lowering of fatigue as measured by an antifatigue index compared with those on placebo. There was no difference in the index between the two dosage groups. However, these results cannot be generalized. More well-designed studies are warranted.