- Russian ginseng
- devil's shrub
- wild pepper
- ci wu ja
For Patients & Caregivers
Bottom Line: Siberian ginseng does not enhance athletic performance nor treat or prevent cancer.
Scientists are unsure how Siberian ginseng works. Compounds from the plant have been shown to stimulate cells of immune system and protect the nervous system but no large scale clinical trials have been conducted. Other studies have shown that Siberian ginseng supplements brought down LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) levels and improved the HDL (good cholesterol) levels in postmenopausal women. Small studies have shown that Siberian ginseng may reduce knee osteoarthritis pain and symptoms and benefit bone metabolism in post-menopausal women. More research is needed.
- To reduce the side effects from chemotherapy
No scientific evidence supports this use.
- To stimulate the immune system
Laboratory studies show that Siberian ginseng can stimulate certain aspects of the immune system, but clinical trials have not been conducted.
- To increase strength and stamina
Clinical trials do not support this use.
- To reduce the pain and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis
One small study showed that Siberian ginseng may reduce the pain and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. More research is needed.
- To improve bone metabolism in post-menopausal women
One small study showed that Siberian ginseng had a beneficial effect on bone metabolism in post-menopausal women. However, further study is needed to confirm this effect.
Eight-one post-menopausal Korean women over 65 years of age with osteopenia or osteoporosis were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg/day calcium with or without Siberian ginseng extract. After 6 months the treatment group showed a significant change in levels of the bone markers compared with the control group. However, no significant changes in bone density were observed, possibly due to the short treatment time. Siberian ginseng extract was well-tolerated. The authors concluded that Siberian ginseng extract is safe and may benefit bone health.
For Healthcare Professionals
Siberian ginseng is derived from a perennial plant primarily found in Northern Asia. Although it is not a species of ginseng, it is thought to have comparable activities. Siberian ginseng, or eleuthero, has been used traditionally as an adaptogen, performance enhancer, and immunostimulant (2). Active components include eleutherosides and polysaccharides (28).
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that Siberian ginseng extracts have neuroprotective effects (8); reduce glucose levels in insulin-deficient animals (9); bind to estrogen, progestin, and mineralocorticoid receptors (10);and stimulate T-lymphocyte and natural killer cell production (11).
A small study of patients with knee osteoarthritis found that an herbal mixture containing Siberian ginseng relieved pain and improved physical function (5).
Siberian ginseng may also improve endurance (27); have beneficial effects on bone remodeling (6) and in managing cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women (7).
In vitro studies indicate that eleuthero contains chemicals that bind to estrogen, progestin, mineralocorticoid, and glucocorticoid receptors (10). In macrophages, a Siberian ginseng extract suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression and thus nitric oxide production by possibly inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B activity (15)(16) or Akt and JNK signaling (16), and inhibited reactive oxygen species production (17). Eleutheroside B, eleutheroside E, and isofraxidin — active constituents of Siberian ginseng — showed protective effects against Aβ(25-35)-induced atrophies of axons and dendrites in rat cultured cortical neurons (22). Isofraxidin also inhibited cell invasion and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 by human hepatoma cell lines HuH-7 and Hep G-2, possibly through the inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation (18).
In animal studies, eleuthero root bark was shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects against global cerebral ischemia with recovery of spatial memory in rats, possibly through anti-inflammatory mechanisms of inhibition of COX-2 expression, microglia and astrocyte expression (23). Eleutherosides restored behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice with sleep deprivation (24), and alleviated both physical and mental fatigue in mice possibly due to increased fat utilization, delayed accumulation of blood urea nitrogen, and increased lactate dehydrogenase (25). Eleutheroside also mediates the hyperglycemic effects of Siberian ginseng by regulating insulin signaling and glucose utilization (29).
In other studies, a Siberian ginseng extract decreased cadmium concentration in the blood and liver of mice as well as cadmium-induced mitotic and apoptotic activity of liver cells (26). Supplementation with Siberian ginseng reduced LDL cholesterol levels and improved LDL/HDL ratios in postmenopausal women (7).
Siberian ginseng extract was shown to moderately inhibit breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-mediated methotrexate transport in BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles (21).
- Case report: Subarachnoid hemorrhage was reported in a 53-year-old woman following use of a herbal supplement containing red clover, dong quai, and Siberian ginseng for hot flashes associated with perimenopause. Her symptoms resolved after discontinuing use of the supplement (19).
Hwang YC, et al. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extract on bone turnover and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Metab. 2009;27(5):584-90.
This randomized, open-label, controlled study enrolled 81 post-menopausal Korean women (age<65 years) with ostopenia or osteoporosis. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control (n=40) or treatment group (n=41). Both groups received 500 mg/day calcium and the treatment group also received Siberian ginseng extract. After 6 months the treatment group exhibited a significant change in plasma levels of the bone turnover markers, serium osteocalcin (p=0.041) and CTx, (C terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, [p<0.0001]), compared with the control group. However, no significant changes in bone density were observed, possibly due to the short treatment duration.. Siberian ginseng extract was well-tolerated and demonstrated a safety profile comparable to the control group. The authors concluded that Siberian ginseng extract is safe and may beneficially affect bone remodeling in Korean post-menopausal women.
Lee YJ, Chung HY, Kwak HK, Yoon S. The effects of A. senticosus supplementation on serum lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and lymphocyte DNA damage in postmenopausal women. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Oct 10 2008;375(1):44-8.
To determine the effects of Siberian ginseng supplementation on blood lipid levels and oxidative stress, 40 postmenopausal women were randomly divided into either a control group receiving calcium (500 mg/day) or an experimental group receiving both calcium and A. senticosus capsules (500 mg tid). After 6 months, blood lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and lymphocytic DNA damage was assessed along with hepatoxicity. Serum LDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratio, lymphocytic DNA damage, and oxidative stress was significantly reduced in the treatment group while the control group did not experience any changes. Furthermore, no side effects were noted during this study. Future studies are required to determine if A. senticosus supplementation produces long term benefits in other study populations.