Smilax glabra

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Smilax glabra

Common Names

  • Glabrous greenbrier rhizome
  • Tu Fu Ling
  • Tufuling
  • China root

For Patients & Caregivers

How It Works

Smilax glabra has not been shown to treat or prevent cancer.

Smilax glabra is known as Tufuling in traditional Chinese medicine. The root has been used in combination with other herbs to treat various types of infections and inflammatory conditions. Laboratory studies have shown that this plant has anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, clinical studies have not been conducted and it is not known if the same effects would occur in humans.

Purported Uses
  • Arthritis
    Anti-inflammatory activity has been observed in rat models, but studies in humans are lacking.
  • Infections
    Lab studies suggest Smilax glabra has antiviral activity.
  • Kidney disease
    Astilbin, a compound present in Smilax glabra, has been studied in rats with diabetic nephropathy. However, clinical trials are lacking.
  • Immunostimulation
    Smilaxin, a protein isolated from Smilax glabra, stimulated immune activity in mice, but studies have not been conducted in humans.
  • Cancer
    In vitro studies suggest antioxidant and antitumor effects. However, clinical trials have not been conducted.
Special Point

Smilax glabra should not be confused with Smilax officinalis, another species commonly known as sarsaparilla.

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For Healthcare Professionals

Scientific Name
Smilax glabra
Clinical Summary

Smilax glabra is a plant prevalent in South Asia, the rhizome of which is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various types of infections and inflammatory conditions.

In vitro and animal studies have shown that this botanical has antioxidant (1) (2), antiviral (3), renoprotective (4), immunostimulatory (5), anti-inflammatory (6) (7), hepatoprotective (16) and anticancer properties (8) (9) (10) (11) (12), but it has not been studied in clinical trials.

Smilax glabra should not be confused with Smilax officinalis, another species commonly known as sarsaparilla.

Food Sources

Smilax glabra is used in traditional Chinese foods (2).

Purported Uses
  • Arthritis
  • Infections
  • Nephritis
  • Immunostimulant
  • Cancer
Mechanism of Action

Anticancer effects of Smilax glabra may be due to its ability to induce apoptosis (9) by upregulating Bax and downregulating Bcl2 genes respectively. Another possible mechanism is via cell cycle arrest. Studies have shown a decrease in mRNA expression of Cyclin B1 and Cdk1 (G2 regulations proteins) in carcinoma cells following administration of Smilax glabra (9).

Anti-inflammatory effects may be due to inhibition of T-lymphocyte adhesion, thereby causing a decrease in T-cell ability to express CD44 and produce TNF alpha (6).

Inhibition of transforming factor-Beta (TGF-Beta) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), both thought to induce the fibrotic process in diabetic nephropathy, was observed in HK-2 cells after astilbin exposure (4). In animal studies, the constituent astilbin demonstrated renoprotective activities in diabetic nephropathy models (4) and improved renal function as demonstrated by significant reductions in urinary volume and albumin, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine clearance. In another study, Smilax glabra exerted anticardiac hypertrophy effects by targeting inhibition of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) release (18).

References
  1. Zhang Q-F, Zhang Z-R, Cheung H. Antioxidant activity of Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae extracts and its key constituent-astilbin. Food Chemistry. 2009;115(1):297-303.

  2. Ooi LS, Wong EY, Chiu LC, et al. Antiviral and anti-proliferative glycoproteins from the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb (Liliaceae). Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(1):185-195.

  3. Li GS, Jiang WL, Yue XD, et al. Effect of Astilbin on Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy in vivo and in vitro. Planta Med. 2009;75(14):1470-1475.

  4. Kuo YH, Hsu YW, Liaw CC, et al. Cytotoxic phenylpropanoid glycosides from the stems of Smilax china. J Nat Prod. Oct 2005;68(10):1475-1478.

  5. Sa F, Gao JL, Fung KP, et al. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of Smilax glabra Roxb. extract on hepatoma cell lines. Chem Biol Interact. Jan 10 2008;171(1):1-14.

  6. Thabrew MI, Mitry RR, Morsy MA, Hughes RD. Cytotoxic effects of a decoction of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Life Sci. Aug 5 2005;77(12):1319-1330.

  7. Chen T, Li JX, Xu Q. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Smilax glabra. Phytochemistry. Apr 2000;53(8):1051-1055.

  8. Zhou X, Xu Q, Li JX, Chen T. Structural revision of two flavanonol glycosides from Smilax glabra. Planta Med. May 2009;75(6):654-655.

  9. Chen JK, Chen TT. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology, 2nd ed. California: Art of Medicine Press; 2004.

  10. Xu S, Shang MY, Liu GX, et al. Chemical constituents from the rhizomes of Smilax glabra and their antimicrobial activity. Molecules. 2013 May 8;18(5):5265-87.

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