Dandelion

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Dandelion

Common Names

  • Blowball
  • Puffball
  • Lion's tooth
  • Pu gong ying
  • Swine snout
  • Wild endive

For Patients & Caregivers

Tell your healthcare providers about any dietary supplements you’re taking, such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, and natural or home remedies. This will help them manage your care and keep you safe.


What is it?

Dandelion is a plant with yellow flowers and is related to the daisy family. Its roots, leaves, and flowers have been used in traditional medicine in China, Mexico, and North America to treat different issues.

Dandelion is used to make tea, wine, soups, salads, and can be used as a substitute for coffee. It can also be taken as a supplement as capsules or liquid extracts.

What is it used for?

Dandelion is used to:

  • Help with lactation (when your body makes breast milk)
  • Treat diabetes
  • Build your appetite
  • Help increase urination

Dandelion also has other uses that haven’t been studied by doctors to see if they work.

It’s generally safe to use dandelion in food and tea. But talk with your healthcare providers before taking supplements or higher amounts of dandelion. Herbal supplements are stronger than the herbs you would use in cooking. They can also interact with some medications and affect how they work.

For more information, read the “What else do I need to know?” section below.

What are the side effects?

Side effects of using dandelion may include:

  • Heartburn (burning feeling in your chest or throat)
  • Stomach ache
  • Low blood sugar
  • Skin rash
  • Mild diarrhea (loose or watery bowel movements). This may happen if you take high amounts of dandelion.
What else do I need to know?
  • Talk to your healthcare provider if you’re taking water pills. Dandelion can increase the number of times you urinate (pee).
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For Healthcare Professionals

Scientific Name
Taraxacum mongolicum, Taraxacum officinale
Clinical Summary

Dandelion is related to the daisy family and commonly found worldwide. The flower, leaf and root of this plant are used in traditional medicine for their diuretic, cholagogic, antirheumatic and appetite-stimulating properties (23). In Chinese Medicine, the herb has been used to promote lactation. It is also used to reduce abscesses, especially in the breast and intestines (2).

In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that dandelion has lipid-lowering (13), hepatoprotective (14), antiviral (15) (16), anticoagulant (5), diuretic (10), anti-inflammatory (14), and antioxidant (4) activities. A polyherbal extract containing dandelion was reported effective against acute non-bacterial tonsillitis in children (30).

Dandelion root extract demonstrated anticancer effects against melanoma (3) and leukemia (26), as well as pancreatic (17) and colorectal (25) cancer cell lines. It also showed estrogenic activity. Preclinical studies suggest increased proliferation of hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells as well as increased uterine weight in immature female rats (24). In addition, it can cause allergic reactions and may interact with some prescription drugs. There have been a few case reports of potential benefit in patients with blood cancers (29), but it is unclear whether this was definitively due to dandelion supplementation. Clinical trials are needed to determine the conditions under which dandelion may be safe and effective.

Purported Uses
  • Cancer treatment
  • Diabetes
  • Lactation stimulation
  • Liver disease
  • Promote urination
Mechanism of Action

The diuretic activity of dandelion may be a result of its high potassium content (23). In murine models of diet-induced fatty liver disease, dandelion leaf extract exihibited hepatoprotective effects with decreased serum levels of ALT, hepatic TG, and MDA, as well as TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression (14). At the post-transcriptional level, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were exihibited via decreased activation of procaspase-3 to active caspase-3, and JNK phosphorylation (14). Linoleic acid, phytol and tetracosanol have been identified as bioactive compounds, with hypolipidemic effects occurring via AMP-activated protein kinase activation in human HepG2 cells (13).

Dandelion has been shown to decrease human hepatoma cell line viability by increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1alpha production (9). Other research has shown that the presence of luteolin and luteolin 7-glucoside in dandelion flower extract exhibits cytotoxic activities against the colon adenocarcinoma cell line (Caco-2) (4). An isolated compound identical to lupeol, a lupane-type triterpene, inhibited cell growth and induced melanogenesis in a mouse melanoma cell line (3)

Sesquiterpene lactones are thought to be the allergenic compounds in dandelion (7).

Adverse Reactions

Oral: Heartburn, stomach inflammation, dyspepsia; mild diarrhea with overdosage (2); hypoglycemia (11).
Contact dermatitis: Can be more common in children from exposure to dandelion (22).

Case reports
Hemorrhagic cystitis: In a 33-year-old woman following use of a slimming product containing dandelion. Symptoms resolved after product discontinuation (12).
Toxic blood levels of immunosuppressive agents: In a kidney transplant recipient, that occurred after consumption of a tea which contained dandelion (19). In vitro, dandelion tea extract inhibited CYP3A4, which is used in the metabolism of these drugs (20).
Digital necrosis: In a 56-year-old man with chronic kidney disease, cutaneous manifestations of hyperoxaluria related to high intake of dandelion tea (10–15 cups daily for 6 months) (21).
Contact dermatitis: In a 7-year-old boy, which improved by avoidance of handling plants (7).

Herb-Drug Interactions
  • Diuretics: Animal and human studies suggest dandelion may have additive effects due to its diuretic activity (10) (23).
  • Hypoglycemics: In vitro and in vivo studies suggest dandelion may have additive effects due to its hypoglycemic property (23).
  • Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 3A4 substrates: In animal and in vitro studies respectively, dandelion inhibited CYP1A2 (28) and CYP3A4 (20) activities, which may result in altered blood levels of substrate drugs. In addition, a case report of toxic blood levels of immunosuppressive agents was attributed to consumption of tea containing dandelion (19).
  • UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) substrates: Animal studies suggest dandelion induces UGT activity (28) and may increase blood levels of substrate drugs.
Dosage (OneMSK Only)
References
  1. Barnes J, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2002.
  2. Benky D, Clavey S, Stöger E. Chinese Herbal Medicine, Materia Medica. 3rd Edition Seattle, WA: Eastland Press, Inc, 2004.
  3. Hata K, Ishikawa K, Hori K, Konishi T. Differentiation-inducing activity of lupeol, a lupane-type triterpene from Chinese dandelion root (Hokouei-kon), on a mouse melanoma cell line. Biol Pharm.Bull. 2000;23:962-7.
  4. Hu C,.Kitts DD. Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro. J Agric.Food Chem. 2003;51:301-10.
  5. Yun SI, Cho HR, Choi HS. Anticoagulant from Taraxacum platycarpum. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2002;66:1859-64.
  6. Brinker F. Herb Contraindications And Drug Interactions. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications, 2001.
  7. Wakelin SH, Marren P, Young E, Shaw S. Compositae sensitivity and chronic hand dermatitis in a seven-year-old boy. Br J Dermatol 1997;137:289-91.
  8. Choi JH, Shin KM, Kim NY, Hong JP, Lee YS, Kim HJ et al. Taraxinic acid, a hydrolysate of sesquiterpene lactone glycoside from the Taraxacum coreanum NAKAI, induces the differentiation of human acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Biol Pharm.Bull. 2002;25:1446-50.
  9. Koo HN, Hong SH, Song BK, Kim CH, Yoo YH, Kim HM. Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells. Life Sci. 2004 Jan 16;74(9):1149-57.
  10. Clare BA, Conroy RS, Spelman K. The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Aug;15(8):929-34.
  11. Goksu E, Eken C, Karadeniz O, Kucukyilmaz O. First report of hypoglycemia secondary to dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) ingestion. Am J Emerg Med. 2010 Jan;28(1):111.e1-2.
  12. Catania MA, Oteri A, Caiello P, et al. Hemorrhagic cystitis induced by an herbal mixture. South Med J. 2010 Jan;103(1):90-2.
  13. Liu YJ, Shieh PC, Lee JC, et al. Hypolipidemic activity of Taraxacum mongolicum associated with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells. Food Funct. Aug 2014;5(8):1755-1762.
  14. Davaatseren M, Hur HJ, Yang HJ, et al. Dandelion leaf extract protects against liver injury induced by methionine- and choline-deficient diet in mice. J Med Food. Jan 2013;16(1):26-33.
  15. Jia YY, Guan RF, Wu YH, et al. Taraxacum mongolicum extract exhibits a protective effect on hepatocytes and an antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus in animal and human cells. Mol Med Rep. Apr 2014;9(4):1381-1387.
  16. Liu J, Zhang N, Liu M. A new inositol triester from Taraxacum mongolicum. Nat Prod Res. 2014;28(7):420-423.
  17. Ovadje P, Chochkeh M, Akbari-Asl P, et al. Selective induction of apoptosis and autophagy through treatment with dandelion root extract in human pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreas. Oct 2012;41(7):1039-1047.
  18. Mingarro DM, Plaza A, Galan A, et al. The effect of five Taraxacum species on in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. Food Funct. Aug 2015;6(8):2787-2793.
  19. Kwan LP, Mok MM, Ma MK, et al. Acute drug toxicity related to drinking herbal tea in a kidney transplant recipient. Ren Fail. Mar 2014;36(2):309-312.
  20. Dufay S, Worsley A, Monteillier A, et al. Herbal tea extracts inhibit Cytochrome P450 3A4 in vitro. J Pharm Pharmacol. Oct 2014;66(10):1478-1490.
  21. Moriarty B, Pinney JH, Owen-Casey MP, et al. Digital necrosis from dandelion tea. Br J Dermatol. Jul 2013;169(1):227-230.
  22. Paulsen E, Andersen KE. Sensitization patterns in Compositae-allergic patients with current or past atopic dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. May 2013;68(5):277-285.
  23. Martinez M, Poirrier P, Chamy R, et al. Taraxacum officinale and related species-An ethnopharmacological review and its potential as a commercial medicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol. Jul 1 2015;169:244-262.
  24. Oh SM, Kim HR, Park YJ, et al. Ethanolic extract of dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) induces estrogenic activity in MCF-7 cells and immature rats. Chin J Nat Med. 2015 Nov;13(11):808-14. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(15)30084-4.
  25. Ovadje P, Ammar S, Guerrero JA, et al. Dandelion root extract affects colorectal cancer proliferation and survival through the activation of multiple death signalling pathways. Oncotarget. 2016 Aug 22. 
  26. Ovadje P, Hamm C, Pandey S. Efficient induction of extrinsic cell death by dandelion root extract in human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) cells. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e30604. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030604.
  27. Ovadje P, Chatterjee S, Griffin C. et al. Selective induction of apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 in human leukemia cells (Jurkat) by dandelion root extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 7;133(1):86-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.005.
  28. Maliakal PP, Wanwimolruk S. Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001 Oct;53(10):1323-9.
  29. Rahmat LT, Damon LE. The Use of Natural Health Products Especially Papaya Leaf Extract and Dandelion Root Extract in Previously Untreated Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia. Case Rep Hematol. 2018;2018:7267920.
  30. Popovych V, Koshel I, Malofiichuk A, et al. A randomized, open-label, multicenter, comparative study of therapeutic efficacy, safety and tolerability of BNO 1030 extract, containing marshmallow root, chamomile flowers, horsetail herb, walnut leaves, yarrow herb, oak bark, dandelion herb in the treatment of acute non-bacterial tonsillitis in children aged 6 to 18 years. Am J Otolaryngol. 2019 Mar-Apr;40(2):265-273.
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